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Algorithms for Estimating Time-Locked Neural Response Components in Cortical Processing of Continuous SpeechObjective: The Temporal Response Function (TRF) is a linear model of neural activity time-locked to continuous stimuli, including continuous speech. TRFs based on speech envelopes typically have distinct components that have provided remarkable insights into the cortical processing of speech. However, current methods may lead to less than reliable estimates of single-subject TRF components. Here, we compare two established methods, in TRF component estimation, and also propose novel algorithms that utilize prior knowledge of these components, bypassing the full TRF estimation. Methods: We compared two established algorithms, ridge and boosting, and two novel algorithms based on Subspace Pursuit (SP) and Expectation Maximization (EM), which directly estimate TRF components given plausible assumptions regarding component characteristics. Single-channel, multi-channel, and source-localized TRFs were fit on simulations and real magnetoencephalographic data. Performance metrics included model fit and component estimation accuracy. Results: Boosting and ridge have comparable performance in component estimation. The novel algorithms outperformed the others in simulations, but not on real data, possibly due to the plausible assumptions not actually being met. Ridge had slightly better model fits on real data compared to boosting, but also more spurious TRF activity. Conclusion: Results indicate that both smooth (ridge) and sparse (boosting) algorithms perform comparablymore »Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 21, 2023
Stroke patients with hemiparesis display decreased beta band (13–25 Hz) rolandic activity, correlating to impaired motor function. However, clinically, patients without significant weakness, with small lesions far from sensorimotor cortex, exhibit bilateral decreased motor dexterity and slowed reaction times. We investigate whether these minor stroke patients also display abnormal beta band activity. Magnetoencephalographic (MEG) data were collected from nine minor stroke patients (NIHSS < 4) without significant hemiparesis, at ~1 and ~6 months postinfarct, and eight age-similar controls. Rolandic relative beta power during matching tasks and resting state, and Beta Event Related (De)Synchronization (ERD/ERS) during button press responses were analyzed. Regardless of lesion location, patients had significantly reduced relative beta power and ERS compared to controls. Abnormalities persisted over visits, and were present in both ipsi- and contra-lesional hemispheres, consistent with bilateral impairments in motor dexterity and speed. Minor stroke patients without severe weakness display reduced rolandic beta band activity in both hemispheres, which may be linked to bilaterally impaired dexterity and processing speed, implicating global connectivity dysfunction affecting sensorimotor cortex independent of lesion location. Findings not only illustrate global network disruption after minor stroke, but suggest rolandic beta band activity may be a potential biomarker and treatment target, evenmore »Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 28, 2023