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Creators/Authors contains: "Kulkarni, Varsha P."

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  1. Abstract

    We use medium-resolution Keck/Echellette Spectrograph and Imager spectroscopy of bright quasars to study cool gas traced by Caiiλλ3934, 3969 and Naiλλ5891, 5897 absorption in the interstellar/circumgalactic media of 21 foreground star-forming galaxies at redshifts 0.03 <z< 0.20 with stellar masses 7.4 ≤ logM*/M≤ 10.6. The quasar–galaxy pairs were drawn from a unique sample of Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasar spectra with intervening nebular emission, and thus have exceptionally close impact parameters (R< 13 kpc). The strength of this line emission implies that the galaxies’ star formation rates (SFRs) span a broad range, with several lying well above the star-forming sequence. We use Voigt profile modeling to derive column densities and component velocities for each absorber, finding that column densitiesN(Caii) > 1012.5cm−2(N(Nai) > 1012.0cm−2) occur with an incidencefC(Caii) = 0.63+0.10−0.11(fC(Nai) = 0.57+0.10−0.11). We find no evidence for a dependence offCor the rest-frame equivalent widthsWr(CaiiK) orWr(Nai5891) onRorM*. Instead,Wr(CaiiK) is correlated with local SFR at >3σsignificance, suggesting that Caiitraces star formation-driven outflows. While most of the absorbers have velocities within ±50 km s−1of the host redshift, their velocity widths (characterized by Δv90) are universally 30–177 km s−1larger than that implied by tilted-ring modeling of the velocities of interstellar material. These kinematics mustmore »trace galactic fountain flows and demonstrate that they persist atR> 5 kpc. Finally, we assess the relationship between dust reddening andWr(CaiiK) (Wr(Nai5891)), finding that 33% (24%) of the absorbers are inconsistent with the best-fit Milky WayE(B−V)-Wrrelations at >3σsignificance.

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  2. Abstract We report Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Origins Spectrograph spectroscopy of 10 quasars with foreground star-forming galaxies at 0.02 < z < 0.14 within impact parameters of ∼1–7 kpc. We detect damped/sub-damped Ly α (DLA/sub-DLA) absorption in 100% of cases where no higher-redshift Lyman-limit systems extinguish the flux at the expected wavelength of Ly α absorption, obtaining the largest targeted sample of DLA/sub-DLAs in low-redshift galaxies. We present absorption measurements of neutral hydrogen and metals. Additionally, we present Green Bank Telescope 21 cm emission measurements for five of the galaxies (including two detections). Combining our sample with the literature, we construct a sample of 117 galaxies associated with DLA/sub-DLAs spanning 0 < z < 4.4, and examine trends between gas and stellar properties, and with redshift. The H i column density is anticorrelated with impact parameter and stellar mass. More massive galaxies appear to have gas-rich regions out to larger distances. The specific star formation rate (sSFR) of absorbing galaxies increases with redshift and decreases with M *, consistent with evolution of the star formation main sequence (SFMS). However, ∼20% of absorbing galaxies lie below the SFMS, indicating that some DLA/sub-DLAs trace galaxies with longer-than-typical gas-depletion timescales. Most DLA/sub-DLA galaxiesmore »with 21 cm emission have higher H i masses than typical galaxies with comparable M *. High M HI / M * ratios and high sSFRs in DLA/sub-DLA galaxies with M * < 10 9 M ⊙ suggest these galaxies may be gas-rich because of recent gas accretion rather than inefficient star formation. Our study demonstrates the power of absorption and emission studies of DLA/sub-DLA galaxies for extending galactic evolution studies to previously under-explored regimes of low M * and low SFR.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023
  3. ABSTRACT We present abundance measurements of the elements Zn, S, O, C, Si, and Fe for four sub-DLAs at redshifts ranging from z = 2.173 to 2.635 using observations from the MIKE spectrograph on the Magellan telescope to constrain the chemical enrichment and star formation of gas-rich galaxies. Using weakly depleted elements O, S, and or Zn, we find the metallicities after the photoionization corrections to be [S/H] = −0.50 ± 0.11, [O/H] > −0.84, [O/H] = −1.27 ± 0.12, and [Zn/H]  = +0.40 ± 0.12 for the absorbers at z  = 2.173, 2.236, 2.539, and 2.635, respectively. Moreover, we are able to put constraints on the electron densities using the fine structure lines of C ii⋆ and Si ii⋆ for two of the sub-DLAs. We find that these values are much higher than the median values found in DLAs in the literature. Furthermore, we estimate the cooling rate lc = 1.20 × 10−26 erg s−1 per H atom for an absorber at z = 2.173, suggesting higher star formation rate density in this sub-DLA than the typical star formation rate density for DLAs at similar redshifts. We also study the metallicity versus velocity dispersion relation for our absorbers. Most of the absorbers follow the trend one can expect from the mass versus metallicitymore »relation for sub-DLAs in the literature. Finally, we are able to put limits on the molecular column density from the non-detections of various strong lines of CO molecules. We estimate 3σ upper limits of logN(CO, J = 0) < 13.87, logN(CO, J = 0) < 13.17, and logN(CO, J = 0) < 13.08, respectively, from the non-detections of absorption from the J = 0 level in the CO AX 0–0, 1–0, and 2–0 bands near 1544, 1510, and 1478 Å.« less