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  1. A model for the structure function tensor is proposed, incorporating the e↵ect of anisotropy as a linear perturbation to the standard isotropic form. The analysis extends the spectral approach of Ishihara et al. (2002) to physical space based on Kolmogorov’s theory and is valid in the inertial range of turbulence. Previous results for velocity co-spectra are used to obtain estimates of the model coe"cients. Structure functions measured from direct numerical simulations of channel flow and from experimental measurements in turbulent boundary layers are compared with predicted behaviour and reasonable agreement is found. We note that power-law scaling is more evidentmore »in the co-spectra than for the mixed structure functions. New observations are made about countergradient correlation between Fourier modes of wall normal and streamwise velocity components for wavenumbers approaching the Kolmogorov scale.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2023
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023
  3. Context. The response of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes to incident γ -ray-initiated showers in the atmosphere changes as the telescopes age due to exposure to light and weather. These aging processes affect the reconstructed energies of the events and γ -ray fluxes. Aims. This work discusses the implementation of signal calibration methods for the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS) to account for changes in the optical throughput and detector performance over time. Methods. The total throughput of a Cherenkov telescope is the product of camera-dependent factors, such as the photomultiplier tube gains and their quantum efficiencies, andmore »the mirror reflectivity and Winston cone response to incoming radiation. This document summarizes different methods to determine how the camera gains and mirror reflectivity have evolved over time and how we can calibrate this changing throughput in reconstruction pipelines for imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. The implementation is validated against seven years of observations with the VERITAS telescopes of the Crab Nebula, which is a reference object in very-high-energy astronomy. Results. Regular optical throughput monitoring and the corresponding signal calibrations are found to be critical for the reconstruction of extensive air shower images. The proposed implementation is applied as a correction to the signals of the photomultiplier tubes in the telescope simulation to produce fine-tuned instrument response functions. This method is shown to be effective for calibrating the acquired γ -ray data and for recovering the correct energy of the events and photon fluxes. At the same time, it keeps the computational effort of generating Monte Carlo simulations for instrument response functions affordably low.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2023
  4. Mutex propagation is a form of efficient constraint propagation popularly used in AI planning to tightly approximate the reachable states from a given state. We utilize this idea in the context of Multi-Agent Path Finding (MAPF). When adapted to MAPF, mutex propagation provides stronger constraints for conflict resolution in Conflict-Based Search (CBS), a popular optimal MAPF algorithm, and provides it with the ability to identify and reason with symmetries in MAPF. While existing work identifies a limited form of symmetries using rectangle reasoning and requires the manual design of symmetry-breaking constraints, mutex propagation is more general and allows for themore »automated design of symmetry-breaking constraints. Our experimental results show that CBS with mutex propagation is capable of outperforming CBSH with rectangle reasoning, a state-of-the-art variant of CBS, with respect to runtime and success rate.« less
  5. Abstract Flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) are the most luminous blazars at GeV energies but only rarely emit detectable fluxes of TeV gamma rays, typically during bright GeV flares. We explore the gamma-ray variability and spectral characteristics of three FSRQs that have been observed at GeV and TeV energies by Fermi-LAT and VERITAS, making use of almost 100 hr of VERITAS observations spread over 10 yr: 3C 279, PKS 1222+216, and Ton 599. We explain the GeV flux distributions of the sources in terms of a model derived from a stochastic differential equation describing fluctuations in the magnetic field in themore »accretion disk and estimate the timescales of magnetic flux accumulation and stochastic instabilities in their accretion disks. We identify distinct flares using a procedure based on Bayesian blocks and analyze their daily and subdaily variability and gamma-ray energy spectra. Using observations from VERITAS, as well as Fermi, Swift, and the Steward Observatory, we model the broadband spectral energy distributions of PKS 1222+216 and Ton 599 during very high energy (VHE)–detected flares in 2014 and 2017, respectively, strongly constraining the jet Doppler factors and gamma-ray emission region locations during these events. Finally, we place theoretical constraints on the potential production of PeV-scale neutrinos during these VHE flares.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023