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  1. null (Ed.)
    Scintillator materials convert high-energy radiation into photons in the ultraviolet to visible light region for radiation detection. In this review, advances in X-ray emission dynamics of inorganic scintillators are presented, including inorganic halides (alkali-metal halides, alkaline-earth halides, rare-earth halides, oxy-halides, rare-earth oxyorthosilicates, halide perovskites), oxides (binary oxides, complex oxides, post-transition metal oxides), sulfides, rare-earth doped scintillators, and organic-inorganic hybrid scintillators. The origin of scintillation is strongly correlated to the host material and dopants. Current models are presented describing the scintillation decay lifetime of inorganic materials, with the emphasis on the short-lived scintillation decay component. The whole charge generation and the de-excitation process are analyzed in general, and an essential role of the decay kinetics is the de-excitation process. We highlighted three decay mechanisms in cross luminescence emission, exitonic emission, and dopant-activated emission, respectively. Factors regulating the origin of different luminescence centers controlling the decay process are discussed. 
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  2. null (Ed.)
    Development of new host materials containing heavy elements for radiation detection is highly desirable. In this work, dibarium octafluorohafnate, Ba 2 HfF 8 , doped with rare-earth ions, was synthesized as cube-shaped nanocrystals via a facile hydrothermal method. The host lattice contains two Ba 2+ crystallographic sites, and dopants on these sites exhibit site-dependent photoluminescence (PL), cathodoluminescence (CL) and X-ray excited radioluminescence (RL) characteristics. Single doping contents were optimized as 25 mol% Tb 3+ and 5 mol% Eu 3+ . In Ba 2 HfF 8 :Tb 3+ –Eu 3+ codoped nanocrystals, preferrable occupation of Eu 3+ and Tb 3+ at two different Ba 2+ sites in the host lattice was observed. The nanocubes exhibited enhanced emissions over micron sized particles. In PL, the presence of Tb 3+ ions significantly enhanced the emission intensity of Eu 3+ ions due to energy transfer from the Tb 3+ to Eu 3+ ions, while under high-energy irradiation in CL or RL, Tb 3+ emission was intensified. X-ray induced RL with afterglow in seconds was observed. It was found that the codoped sample showed higher sensitivity than the singly doped sample, indicating that codoping is an effective strategy to develop a scintillator with this host structure for high-energy radiation detection. 
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  3. Abstract Many measurements at the LHC require efficient identification of heavy-flavour jets, i.e. jets originating from bottom (b) or charm (c) quarks. An overview of the algorithms used to identify c jets is described and a novel method to calibrate them is presented. This new method adjusts the entire distributions of the outputs obtained when the algorithms are applied to jets of different flavours. It is based on an iterative approach exploiting three distinct control regions that are enriched with either b jets, c jets, or light-flavour and gluon jets. Results are presented in the form of correction factors evaluated using proton-proton collision data with an integrated luminosity of 41.5 fb -1 at  √s = 13 TeV, collected by the CMS experiment in 2017. The closure of the method is tested by applying the measured correction factors on simulated data sets and checking the agreement between the adjusted simulation and collision data. Furthermore, a validation is performed by testing the method on pseudodata, which emulate various mismodelling conditions. The calibrated results enable the use of the full distributions of heavy-flavour identification algorithm outputs, e.g. as inputs to machine-learning models. Thus, they are expected to increase the sensitivity of future physics analyses. 
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