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  4. Psychologists recognize Raven’s Progressive Matrices as a useful test of general human intelligence. While many computational models investigate various forms of top-down, deliberative reasoning on the test, there has been less research on bottom-up perceptual processes, like Gestalt image completion, that are also critical in human test performance. In this work, we investigate how Gestalt visual reasoning on the Raven’s test can be modeled using generative image inpainting techniques from computer vision. We demonstrate that a reasoning agent that has access to an off- the-shelf inpainting model trained only on photorealistic images of objects achieves a score of 27/36 onmore »the Colored Progressive Matrices, which corresponds to average performance for nine-year-old children. We also show that when our agent uses inpainting models trained on other datasets (faces, places, and textures), it does not perform as well. Our results illustrate how learning visual regularities in real-world images can translate into successful reasoning about artificial test stimuli. On the flip side, our results also highlight the limitations of such transfer, which may contribute to explanations for why intelligence tests like the Raven’s are often sensitive to people’s individual sociocultural backgrounds.« less
  5. Analogical reasoning fundamentally involves exploiting redundancy in a given task, but there are many different ways an intelligent agent can choose to define and exploit redundancy, often resulting in very different levels of task performance. We explore such variations in analogical reasoning within the domain of geometric matrix reasoning tasks, namely on the Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices intelligence test. We show how different analogical constructions used by the same basic visual-imagery-based computational model—varying only in how they “slice” a matrix problem into parts and do search and optimization within/across these parts—achieve very different levels of test performance, ranging from 13/60more »correct all the way up to 57/60 correct. Our findings suggest that the ability to select or build effective high-level analogical constructions can be as important as an agent’s competencies in low-level reasoning skills, which raises interesting open questions about the extent to which building the “right” analogies might contribute to individual differences in human matrix reasoning performance, and how intelligent agents might learn to build or select from among different analogical constructions in the first place.« less
  6. Visuospatial reasoning refers to a diverse set of skills that involve thinking about space and time. An artificial agent with access to a sufficiently large set of visuospatial reasoning skills might be able to generalize its reasoning ability to an unprecedented expanse of tasks including portions of many popular intelligence tests. In this paper, we stress the importance of a developmental approach to the study of visuospatial reasoning, with an emphasis on fundamental skills. A comprehensive benchmark, with properties we outline in this paper including breadth, depth, explainability, and domain-specificity, would encourage and measure the genesis of such a skillset.more »Lacking an existing benchmark that satisfies these properties, we outline the design of a novel test in this paper. Such a benchmark would allow for expanding analysis of existing datasets’ and agents’ applicability to the problem of generalized visuospatial reasoning.« less
  7. In this paper, we present the Visuospatial Reasoning Environment for Experimentation (VREE). VREE provides a simulated environment where intelligent agents interact with virtual objects while solving different visuospatial reasoning tasks. This paper shows how VREE is valuable for studying the sufficiency of visual imagery approaches for a large number of visuospatial reasoning tasks as well as how diverse strategies can be represented and studied within a single task. We present results from computational experiments using VREE on the block design task and on numerous subtests from the Leiter-R test battery on nonverbal intelligence.