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  1. High-quality 3D image recognition is an important component of many vision and robotics systems. However, the accurate processing of these images requires the use of compute-expensive 3D Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs). To address this challenge, we propose the use of Spiking Neural Networks (SNNs) that are generated from iso-architecture CNNs and trained with quantization-aware gradient descent to optimize their weights, membrane leak, and firing thresholds. During both training and inference, the analog pixel values of a 3D image are directly applied to the input layer of the SNN without the need to convert to a spike-train. This significantly reduces the training and inference latency and results in high degree of activation sparsity, which yields significant improvements in computational efficiency. However, this introduces energy-hungry digital multiplications in the first layer of our models, which we propose to mitigate using a processing-in-memory (PIM) architecture. To evaluate our proposal, we propose a 3D and a 3D/2D hybrid SNN-compatible convolutional architecture and choose hyperspectral imaging (HSI) as an application for 3D image recognition. We achieve overall test accuracy of 98.68, 99.50, and 97.95% with 5 time steps (inference latency) and 6-bit weight quantization on the Indian Pines, Pavia University, and Salinas Scene datasets, respectively.more »In particular, our models implemented using standard digital hardware achieved accuracies similar to state-of-the-art (SOTA) with ~560.6× and ~44.8× less average energy than an iso-architecture full-precision and 6-bit quantized CNN, respectively. Adopting the PIM architecture in the first layer, further improves the average energy, delay, and energy-delay-product (EDP) by 30, 7, and 38%, respectively.« less
  2. This paper presents a dynamic network rewiring (DNR) method to generate pruned deep neural network (DNN) models that are robust against adversarial attacks yet maintain high accuracy on clean im- ages. In particular, the disclosed DNR method is based on a unified constrained optimization formulation using a hybrid loss function that merges ultra-high model compression with robust adversar- ial training. This training strategy dynamically adjusts inter-layer connectivity based on per-layer normalized momentum computed from the hybrid loss function. In contrast to existing robust pruning frameworks that require multiple training iterations, the proposed learning strategy achieves an overall target pruning ratio with only a single training iteration and can be tuned to support both irregu- lar and structured channel pruning. To evaluate the merits of DNR, experiments were performed with two widely accepted models, namely VGG16 and ResNet-18, on CIFAR-10, CIFAR-100 as well as with VGG16 on Tiny-ImageNet. Compared to the baseline un- compressed models, DNR provides over 20× compression on all the datasets with no significant drop in either clean or adversarial classification accuracy. Moreover, our experiments show that DNR consistently finds compressed models with better clean and adver- sarial image classification performance than what is achievable through state-of-the-art alternatives.more »Our models and test codes are available at« less
  3. The high energy cost of processing deep convolutional neural networks impedes their ubiquitous deployment in energy-constrained platforms such as embedded systems and IoT devices. This article introduces convolutional layers with pre-defined sparse 2D kernels that have support sets that repeat periodically within and across filters. Due to the efficient storage of our periodic sparse kernels, the parameter savings can translate into considerable improvements in energy efficiency due to reduced DRAM accesses, thus promising significant improvements in the trade-off between energy consumption and accuracy for both training and inference. To evaluate this approach, we performed experiments with two widely accepted datasets, CIFAR-10 and Tiny ImageNet in sparse variants of the ResNet18 and VGG16 architectures. Compared to baseline models, our proposed sparse variants require up to ∼82% fewer model parameters with 5.6× fewer FLOPs with negligible loss in accuracy for ResNet18 on CIFAR-10. For VGG16 trained on Tiny ImageNet, our approach requires 5.8× fewer FLOPs and up to ∼83.3% fewer model parameters with a drop in top-5 (top-1) accuracy of only 1.2% ( ∼2.1% ). We also compared the performance of our proposed architectures with that of ShuffleNet and MobileNetV2. Using similar hyperparameters and FLOPs, our ResNet18 variants yield an average accuracymore »improvement of ∼2.8% .« less
  4. The high demand for computational and storage resources severely impedes the deployment of deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) in limited resource devices. Recent CNN architectures have proposed reduced complexity versions (e.g,. SuffleNet and MobileNet) but at the cost of modest decreases in accuracy. This paper proposes pSConv, a pre-defined sparse 2D kernel based convolution, which promises significant improvements in the trade-off between complexity and accuracy for both CNN training and inference. To explore the potential of this approach, we have experimented with two widely accepted datasets, CIFAR-10 and Tiny ImageNet, in sparse variants of both the ResNet18 and VGG16 architectures. Our approach shows a parameter count reduction of up to 4.24× with modest degradation in classification accuracy relative to that of standard CNNs. Our approach outperforms a popular variant of ShuffleNet using a variant of ResNet18 with pSConv having 3 × 3 kernels with only four of nine elements not fixed at zero. In particular, the parameter count is reduced by 1.7× for CIFAR-10 and 2.29× for Tiny ImageNet with an increased accuracy of ~ 4%.
  5. Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) play a key role in many machine learning (ML) applications but poses arduous challenges in terms of storage and computation of network parameters. Memristive crossbar arrays (MCAs) are capable of both computation and storage, making them promising for in-memory computing enabled neural network accelerators. At the same time, the presence of a significant amount of zero weights in ANNs has motivated research in a variety of parameter reduction techniques. However, for crossbar based architectures, the study of efficient methods to take advantage of network sparsity is still in the early stage. This paper presents CSrram, an efficient ex-situ training framework for hybrid CMOS-memristive neuromorphic circuits. CSrram includes a pre-defined block diagonal clustered (BDC) sparsity algorithm to significantly reduce area and power consumption. The proposed framework is verified on a wide range of datasets including MNIST handwritten recognition, fashion MNIST, breast cancer prediction (BCW), IRIS, and mobile health monitoring. Compared to state of the art fully connected memristive neuromorphic circuits, our CSrram with only 25% density of weights in the first junction, provides a power and area efficiency of 1.5x and 2.6x (averaged over five datasets), respectively, without any significant test accuracy loss.
  6. Abstract

    Sepsis is a potentially fatal physiological state caused by an imbalance in the body's immune response to an infection and is one of the most common causes for deaths in the non‐coronary intensive care unit worldwide. In this article, the state of art on sepsis is presented in a manner that facilitates easy comprehension also for the non‐medical researchers by introducing sepsis, its causes, extent and comparison of diagnostic techniques (conventional labeled as well as label‐free detection). The article also provides a comprehensive discussion on sepsis biomarkers, to help researchers from multi‐disciplinary domain in developing devices and ideas to complement the existing sepsis diagnosis systems for quick and premature detection of the physiological condition and reduce mortality by means of early treatments.