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  1. Abstract We present the results of a search for deeply-eclipsing white dwarfs in the ZTF Data Release 4. We identify nine deeply-eclipsing white dwarf candidates, four of which we followed up with high-cadence photometry and spectroscopy. Three of these systems show total eclipses in the ZTF data and our follow-up APO 3.5-meter telescope observations. Even though the eclipse duration is consistent with sub-stellar companions, our analysis shows that all four systems contain a white dwarf with low-mass stellar companions of ∼0.1 M⊙. We provide mass and radius constraints for both stars in each system based on our photometric and spectroscopic fitting.more »Finally, we present a list of 41 additional eclipsing WD+M candidates identified in a preliminary search of ZTF DR7, including 12 previously studied systems. We identify two new candidate short-period, eclipsing, white dwarf-brown dwarf binaries within our sample of 41 WD+M candidates based on PanSTARRS colors.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 29, 2023
  2. Context. We present observations of ZTF20aatqesi (SN 2020faa). This Type II supernova (SN) displays a luminous light curve (LC) that started to rebrighten from an initial decline. We investigate this in relation to the famous SN iPTF14hls, which received a great deal of attention and multiple interpretations in the literature, but whose nature and source of energy still remain unknown. Aims. We demonstrate the great similarity between SN 2020faa and iPTF14hls during the first 6 months, and use this comparison to forecast the evolution of SN 2020faa and to reflect on the less well observed early evolution of iPTF14hls. Methods.more »We present and analyse our observational data, consisting mainly of optical LCs from the Zwicky Transient Facility in the gri bands and of a sequence of optical spectra. We construct colour curves and a bolometric lc, and we compare ejecta-velocity and black-body radius evolutions for the two supernovae (SNe) and for more typical Type II SNe. Results. The LCs show a great similarity with those of iPTF14hls over the first 6 months in luminosity, timescale, and colour. In addition, the spectral evolution of SN 2020faa is that of a Type II SN, although it probes earlier epochs than those available for iPTF14hls. Conclusions. The similar LC behaviour is suggestive of SN 2020faa being a new iPTF14hls. We present these observations now to advocate follow-up observations, since most of the more striking evolution of SN iPTF14hls came later, with LC undulations and a spectacular longevity. On the other hand, for SN 2020faa we have better constraints on the explosion epoch than we had for iPTF14hls, and we have been able to spectroscopically monitor it from earlier phases than was done for the more famous sibling.« less
  3. Eclipsing post-common-envelope binaries are highly important for resolving the poorly understood, very short-lived common-envelope phase of stellar evolution. Most hot subdwarfs (sdO/Bs) are the bare helium-burning cores of red giants that have lost almost all of their hydrogen envelope. This mass loss is often triggered by common-envelope interactions with close stellar or even substellar companions. Cool companions to hot subdwarf stars such as late-type stars and brown dwarfs are detectable from characteristic light-curve variations – reflection effects and often eclipses. In the recently published catalog of eclipsing binaries in the Galactic Bulge and in the Asteroid Terrestrial-impact Last Alert Systemmore »(ATLAS) survey, we discovered 125 new eclipsing systems showing a reflection effect seen by visual inspection of the light curves and using a machine-learning algorithm, in addition to the 36 systems previously discovered by the Optical Gravitational Lesing Experiment (OGLE) team. The Eclipsing Reflection Effect Binaries from Optical Surveys (EREBOS) project aims at analyzing all newly discovered eclipsing binaries of the HW Vir type (hot subdwarf + close, cool companion) based on a spectroscopic and photometric follow up to derive the mass distribution of the companions, constrain the fraction of substellar companions, and determine the minimum mass needed to strip off the red-giant envelope. To constrain the nature of the primary we derived the absolute magnitude and the reduced proper motion of all our targets with the help of the parallaxes and proper motions measured by the Gaia mission and compared those to the Gaia white-dwarf candidate catalog. It was possible to derive the nature of a subset of our targets, for which observed spectra are available, by measuring the atmospheric parameter of the primary, confirming that less than 10% of our systems are not sdO/Bs with cool companions but are white dwarfs or central stars of planetary nebula. This large sample of eclipsing hot subdwarfs with cool companions allowed us to derive a significant period distribution for hot subdwarfs with cool companions for the first time showing that the period distribution is much broader than previously thought and is ideally suited to finding the lowest-mass companions to hot subdwarf stars. The comparison with related binary populations shows that the period distribution of HW Vir systems is very similar to WD+dM systems and central stars of planetary nebula with cool companions. In the future, several new photometric surveys will be carried out, which will further increase the sample of this project, providing the potential to test many aspects of common-envelope theory and binary evolution.« less
  4. Abstract The accurate simulation of additional interactions at the ATLAS experiment for the analysis of proton–proton collisions delivered by the Large Hadron Collider presents a significant challenge to the computing resources. During the LHC Run 2 (2015–2018), there were up to 70 inelastic interactions per bunch crossing, which need to be accounted for in Monte Carlo (MC) production. In this document, a new method to account for these additional interactions in the simulation chain is described. Instead of sampling the inelastic interactions and adding their energy deposits to a hard-scatter interaction one-by-one, the inelastic interactions are presampled, independent of the hardmore »scatter, and stored as combined events. Consequently, for each hard-scatter interaction, only one such presampled event needs to be added as part of the simulation chain. For the Run 2 simulation chain, with an average of 35 interactions per bunch crossing, this new method provides a substantial reduction in MC production CPU needs of around 20%, while reproducing the properties of the reconstructed quantities relevant for physics analyses with good accuracy.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  5. Abstract The ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider has a broad physics programme ranging from precision measurements to direct searches for new particles and new interactions, requiring ever larger and ever more accurate datasets of simulated Monte Carlo events. Detector simulation with Geant4 is accurate but requires significant CPU resources. Over the past decade, ATLAS has developed and utilized tools that replace the most CPU-intensive component of the simulation—the calorimeter shower simulation—with faster simulation methods. Here, AtlFast3, the next generation of high-accuracy fast simulation in ATLAS, is introduced. AtlFast3 combines parameterized approaches with machine-learning techniques and is deployed tomore »meet current and future computing challenges, and simulation needs of the ATLAS experiment. With highly accurate performance and significantly improved modelling of substructure within jets, AtlFast3 can simulate large numbers of events for a wide range of physics processes.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2023
  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2023
  8. Abstract The energy response of the ATLAS calorimeter is measured for single charged pions with transverse momentum in the range $$10more »situ single-particle measurements. The calorimeter response to single-pions is observed to be overestimated by $${\sim }2\%$$ ∼ 2 % across a large part of the $$p_{\text {T}}$$ p T spectrum in the central region and underestimated by $${\sim }4\%$$ ∼ 4 % in the endcaps in the ATLAS simulation. The uncertainties in the measurements are $${\lesssim }1\%$$ ≲ 1 % for $$15« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023
  9. A bstract Searches are conducted for new spin-0 or spin-1 bosons using events where a Higgs boson with mass 125 GeV decays into four leptons ( ℓ = e , μ ). This decay is presumed to occur via an intermediate state which contains two on-shell, promptly decaying bosons: H → XX/ZX → 4 ℓ , where the new boson X has a mass between 1 and 60 GeV. The search uses pp collision data collected with the ATLAS detector at the LHC with an integrated luminosity of 139 fb − 1 at a centre-of-mass energy $$ \sqrt{s} $$ smore »= 13 TeV. The data are found to be consistent with Standard Model expectations. Limits are set on fiducial cross sections and on the branching ratio of the Higgs boson to decay into XX/ZX , improving those from previous publications by a factor between two and four. Limits are also set on mixing parameters relevant in extensions of the Standard Model containing a dark sector where X is interpreted to be a dark boson.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023
  10. Abstract This paper presents a measurement of the electroweak production of two jets in association with a $$Z\gamma $$ Z γ pair, with the Z boson decaying into two neutrinos. It also presents a search for invisible or partially invisible decays of a Higgs boson with a mass of 125  $$\text {GeV}$$ GeV produced through vector-boson fusion with a photon in the final state. These results use data from LHC proton–proton collisions at $$\sqrt{s}$$ s = 13  $$\text {TeV}$$ TeV collected with the ATLAS detector and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 139  $$\hbox {fb}^{-1}$$ fb - 1 . Themore »event signature, shared by all benchmark processes considered for the measurements and searches, is characterized by a significant amount of unbalanced transverse momentum and a photon in the final state, in addition to a pair of forward jets. Electroweak $$Z\gamma $$ Z γ production in association with two jets is observed in this final state with a significance of 5.2 (5.1 expected) standard deviations. The measured fiducial cross-section for this process is $$1.31\pm 0.29$$ 1.31 ± 0.29  fb. An observed (expected) upper limit of 0.37 ( $$0.34^{+0.15}_{-0.10}$$ 0 . 34 - 0.10 + 0.15 ) at 95% confidence level is set on the branching ratio of a 125  $$\text {GeV}$$ GeV Higgs boson to invisible particles, assuming the Standard Model production cross-section. The signature is also interpreted in the context of decays of a Higgs boson into a photon and a dark photon. An observed (expected) 95% CL upper limit on the branching ratio for this decay is set at 0.018 ( $$0.017^{+0.007}_{-0.005}$$ 0 . 017 - 0.005 + 0.007 ), assuming the Standard Model production cross-section for a 125  $$\text {GeV}$$ GeV Higgs boson.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2023