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  1. Abstract A newly developed observable for correlations between symmetry planes, which characterize the direction of the anisotropic emission of produced particles, is measured in Pb–Pb collisions at $$\sqrt{s_\text {NN}}$$ s NN  = 2.76 TeV with ALICE. This so-called Gaussian Estimator allows for the first time the study of these quantities without the influence of correlations between different flow amplitudes. The centrality dependence of various correlations between two, three and four symmetry planes is presented. The ordering of magnitude between these symmetry plane correlations is discussed and the results of the Gaussian Estimator are compared with measurements of previously used estimators. The results utilizing the new estimator lead to significantly smaller correlations than reported by studies using the Scalar Product method. Furthermore, the obtained symmetry plane correlations are compared to state-of-the-art hydrodynamic model calculations for the evolution of heavy-ion collisions. While the model predictions provide a qualitative description of the data, quantitative agreement is not always observed, particularly for correlators with significant non-linear response of the medium to initial state anisotropies of the collision system. As these results provide unique and independent information, their usage in future Bayesian analysis can further constrain our knowledge on the properties of the QCD matter produced in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  2. A bstract The production of π ± , K ± , and $$ \left(\overline{\textrm{p}}\right)\textrm{p} $$ p ¯ p is measured in pp collisions at $$ \sqrt{s} $$ s = 13 TeV in different topological regions of the events. Particle transverse momentum ( p T ) spectra are measured in the “toward”, “transverse”, and “away” angular regions defined with respect to the direction of the leading particle in the event. While the toward and away regions contain the fragmentation products of the near-side and away-side jets, respectively, the transverse region is dominated by particles from the Underlying Event (UE). The relative transverse activity classifier, R T  =  N T /〈 N T 〉, is used to group events according to their UE activity, where N T is the measured charged-particle multiplicity per event in the transverse region and 〈 N T 〉 is the mean value over all the analysed events. The first measurements of identified particle p T spectra as a function of R T in the three topological regions are reported. It is found that the yield of high transverse momentum particles relative to the R T -integrated measurement decreases with increasing R T in both the toward and the away regions, indicating that the softer UE dominates particle production as R T increases and validating that R T can be used to control the magnitude of the UE. Conversely, the spectral shapes in the transverse region harden significantly with increasing R T . This hardening follows a mass ordering, being more significant for heavier particles. Finally, it is observed that the p T -differential particle ratios $$ \left(\textrm{p}+\overline{\textrm{p}}\right)/\left({\uppi}^{+}+{\uppi}^{-}\right) $$ p + p ¯ / π + + π − and (K + + K − ) / ( π + + π − ) in the low UE limit ( R T → 0) approach expectations from Monte Carlo generators such as PYTHIA 8 with Monash 2013 tune and EPOS LHC, where the jet-fragmentation models have been tuned to reproduce e + e − results. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
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  5. Abstract Two-particle correlations with $$\textrm{K}^{0}_\mathrm{{S}}$$ K S 0 , $$\Lambda $$ Λ / $$\overline{\Lambda }$$ Λ ¯ , and charged hadrons as trigger particles in the transverse momentum range $$8{<}p_{{\textrm{T}},{\textrm{trig}}}{<}16$$ 8 < p T , trig < 16  GeV/ $$c$$ c , and associated charged particles within $$1{<}p_{{\textrm{T}},{\textrm{assoc}}}{<}8$$ 1 < p T , assoc < 8  GeV/ $$c$$ c , are studied at midrapidity in pp and central Pb–Pb collisions at a centre-of-mass energy per nucleon–nucleon collision $$\sqrt{s_{\textrm{NN}}}~=~5.02$$ s NN = 5.02  TeV with the ALICE detector at the LHC. After subtracting the contributions of the flow background, the per-trigger yields are extracted on both the near and away sides, and the ratio in Pb–Pb collisions with respect to pp collisions ( $$I_{\textrm{AA}}$$ I AA ) is computed. The per-trigger yield in Pb–Pb collisions on the away side is strongly suppressed to the level of $$I_{\textrm{AA}}$$ I AA $$\approx 0.6$$ ≈ 0.6 for $$p_{{\textrm{T}},{\textrm{assoc}}}>3$$ p T , assoc > 3  GeV/ $$c$$ c as expected from strong in-medium energy loss, while an enhancement develops at low $$p_{{\textrm{T}},{\textrm{assoc}}}$$ p T , assoc on both the near and away sides, reaching $$I_{\textrm{AA}}$$ I AA $$\approx 1.8$$ ≈ 1.8 and 2.7 respectively. These findings are in good agreement with previous ALICE measurements from two-particle correlations triggered by neutral pions ( $$\pi ^{0}$$ π 0 –h) and charged hadrons (h–h) in Pb–Pb collisions at $$\sqrt{s_{\textrm{NN}}}~=~2.76$$ s NN = 2.76  TeV. Moreover, the correlations with $$\textrm{K}^{0}_\mathrm{{S}}$$ K S 0 mesons and $$\Lambda $$ Λ / $$\overline{\Lambda }$$ Λ ¯ baryons as trigger particles are compared to those of inclusive charged hadrons. The results are compared with the predictions of Monte Carlo models. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  6. A bstract We report about the properties of the underlying event measured with ALICE at the LHC in pp and p–Pb collisions at $$ \sqrt{s_{\textrm{NN}}} $$ s NN = 5 . 02 TeV. The event activity, quantified by charged-particle number and summed- p T densities, is measured as a function of the leading-particle transverse momentum $$ \left({p}_{\textrm{T}}^{\textrm{trig}}\right) $$ p T trig . These quantities are studied in three azimuthal-angle regions relative to the leading particle in the event: toward, away, and transverse. Results are presented for three different p T thresholds (0.15, 0.5 and 1 GeV/ c ) at mid-pseudorapidity (| η | < 0 . 8). The event activity in the transverse region, which is the most sensitive to the underlying event, exhibits similar behaviour in both pp and p–Pb collisions, namely, a steep increase with $$ {p}_{\textrm{T}}^{\textrm{trig}} $$ p T trig for low $$ {p}_{\textrm{T}}^{\textrm{trig}} $$ p T trig , followed by a saturation at $$ {p}_{\textrm{T}}^{\textrm{trig}}\approx 5 $$ p T trig ≈ 5 GeV/ c . The results from pp collisions are compared with existing measurements at other centre-of-mass energies. The quantities in the toward and away regions are also analyzed after the subtraction of the contribution measured in the transverse region. The remaining jet-like particle densities are consistent in pp and p–Pb collisions for $$ {p}_{\textrm{T}}^{\textrm{trig}}>10 $$ p T trig > 10 GeV/ c , whereas for lower $$ {p}_{\textrm{T}}^{\textrm{trig}} $$ p T trig values the event activity is slightly higher in p–Pb than in pp collisions. The measurements are compared with predictions from the PYTHIA 8 and EPOS LHC Monte Carlo event generators. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2024
  8. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2024
  9. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2024
  10. Abstract This article reports on the inclusive production cross section of several quarkonium states, $$\textrm{J}/\psi $$ J / ψ , $$\psi \mathrm{(2S)}$$ ψ ( 2 S ) , $$\Upsilon \mathrm (1S)$$ Υ ( 1 S ) , $$\Upsilon \mathrm{(2S)}$$ Υ ( 2 S ) , and $$\Upsilon \mathrm{(3S)}$$ Υ ( 3 S ) , measured with the ALICE detector at the LHC, in pp collisions at $$\sqrt{s} = 5.02$$ s = 5.02  TeV. The analysis is performed in the dimuon decay channel at forward rapidity ( $$2.5< y < 4$$ 2.5 < y < 4 ). The integrated cross sections and transverse-momentum ( $$p_{\textrm{T}}$$ p T ) and rapidity ( $$y$$ y ) differential cross sections for $$\textrm{J}/\psi $$ J / ψ , $$\psi \mathrm{(2S)}$$ ψ ( 2 S ) , $$\Upsilon \mathrm (1S)$$ Υ ( 1 S ) , and the $$\psi \mathrm{(2S)}$$ ψ ( 2 S ) -to- $$\textrm{J}/\psi $$ J / ψ cross section ratios are presented. The integrated cross sections, assuming unpolarized quarkonia, are: $$\sigma _{\textrm{J}/\psi }$$ σ J / ψ  ( $$p_{\textrm{T}} <20$$ p T < 20  GeV/c) = 5.88 ± 0.03 ± 0.34 $$ ~\mu $$ μ b, $$\sigma _{\psi \mathrm{(2S)}}$$ σ ψ ( 2 S )  ( $$p_{\textrm{T}} <12$$ p T < 12  GeV/c) = 0.87 ± 0.06 ± 0.10 $$~\mu $$ μ b, $$\sigma _{\Upsilon \mathrm (1S)}$$ σ Υ ( 1 S )  ( $$p_{\textrm{T}} <15$$ p T < 15  GeV/c) = 45.5 ± 3.9 ± 3.5 nb, $$\sigma _{\Upsilon \mathrm{(2S)}}$$ σ Υ ( 2 S )  ( $$p_{\textrm{T}} <15$$ p T < 15  GeV/c) = 22.4 ± 3.2 ± 2.7 nb, and $$\sigma _{\Upsilon \mathrm{(3S)}}$$ σ Υ ( 3 S )  ( $$p_{\textrm{T}} <15$$ p T < 15  GeV/c) = 4.9 ± 2.2 ± 1.0 nb, where the first (second) uncertainty is the statistical (systematic) one. For the first time, the cross sections of the three $$\Upsilon $$ Υ states, as well as the $$\psi \mathrm{(2S)}$$ ψ ( 2 S ) one as a function of $$p_{\textrm{T}}$$ p T and $$y$$ y , are measured at $$\sqrt{s} = 5.02$$ s = 5.02  TeV at forward rapidity. These measurements also significantly extend the $$\textrm{J}/\psi $$ J / ψ $$p_{\textrm{T}}$$ p T reach and supersede previously published results. A comparison with ALICE measurements in pp collisions at $$\sqrt{s} = 2.76$$ s = 2.76 , 7, 8, and 13 TeV is presented and the energy dependence of quarkonium production cross sections is discussed. Finally, the results are compared with the predictions from several production models. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2024