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  1. Abstract

    We present an analysis of 102 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) in nearby (z< 0.1), x-ray-selected galaxy clusters. This is the largest such sample to date and is based on archival data primarily from ZTF and ATLAS. We divide our SNe Ia into an inner cluster sample projected withinr500of the cluster center and an outer cluster sample projected betweenr500and 2r500. We compare these to field samples of SNe Ia at similar redshifts in both quiescent and star-forming host galaxies. Based on SALT3 fits to the light curves, we find that the inner cluster SNe Ia have a higher fraction of fast-evolving objects (SALT3x1< −1) than the outer cluster or field quiescent samples. This implies an intrinsically different population of SNe Ia occurs in inner cluster environments, beyond known correlations based on host galaxy alone. Our cluster samples show a strongly bimodalx1distribution with a fast-evolving component that dominates the inner cluster objects (≳75%) but is just a small fraction of SNe Ia in field star-forming galaxies (≲10%). We do not see strong evidence for variations in the color (SALT3c) distributions among the samples and find only minor differences in SN Ia standardization parameters and Hubble residuals. We suggest that the age of the stellar population drives the observed distributions, with the oldest populations nearly exclusively producing fast-evolving SNe Ia.

     
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  2. Abstract We present the optical photometric and spectroscopic analysis of two Type Iax supernovae (SNe), 2018cni and 2020kyg. SN 2018cni is a bright Type Iax SN ( M V ,peak = −17.81 ± 0.21 mag), whereas SN 2020kyg ( M V ,peak = −14.52 ± 0.21 mag) is a faint one. We derive 56 Ni mass of 0.07 and 0.002 M ⊙ and ejecta mass of 0.48 and 0.14 M ⊙ for SNe 2018cni and 2020kyg, respectively. A combined study of the bright and faint Type Iax SNe in R / r -band reveals that the brighter objects tend to have a longer rise time. However, the correlation between the peak luminosity and decline rate shows that bright and faint Type Iax SNe exhibit distinct behavior. Comparison with standard deflagration models suggests that SN 2018cni is consistent with the deflagration of a CO white dwarf, whereas the properties of SN 2020kyg can be better explained by the deflagration of a hybrid CONe white dwarf. The spectral features of both the SNe point to the presence of similar chemical species but with different mass fractions. Our spectral modeling indicates stratification at the outer layers and mixed inner ejecta for both of the SNe. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2024
  3. Abstract

    Type Iax supernovae (SNe Iax) are the largest known class of peculiar white dwarf SNe, distinct from normal Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). The unique properties of SNe Iax, especially their strong photospheric lines out to extremely late times, allow us to model their optical spectra and derive the physical parameters of the long-lasting photosphere. We present an extensive spectral timeseries, including 21 new spectra, of SN Iax 2014dt from +11 to +562 days after maximum light. We are able to reproduce the entire timeseries with a self-consistent, nearly unaltered deflagration explosion model from Fink et al. usingTARDIS, an open source radiative-transfer code. We find that the photospheric velocity of SN 2014dt slows its evolution between +64 and +148 days, which closely overlaps the phase when we see SN 2014dt diverge from the normal spectral evolution of SNe Ia (+90 to +150 days). The photospheric velocity at these epochs, ∼400–1000 km s−1, may demarcate a boundary within the ejecta below which the physics of SNe Iax and normal SNe Ia differ. Our results suggest that SN 2014dt is consistent with a weak deflagration explosion model that leaves behind a bound remnant and drives an optically thick, quasi-steady-state wind creating the photospheric lines at late times. The data also suggest that this wind may weaken at epochs past +450 days, perhaps indicating a radioactive power source that has decayed away.

     
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  4. Abstract

    With the advent of high-cadence, all-sky automated surveys, supernovae (SNe) are now discovered closer than ever to their dates of explosion. However, young premaximum light follow-up spectra of Type Ic SNe (SNe Ic), probably arising from the most-stripped massive stars, remain rare despite their importance. In this Letter, we present a set of 49 optical spectra observed with the Las Cumbres Observatory through the Global Supernova Project for 6 SNe Ic, including a total of 17 premaximum spectra, of which 8 are observed more than a week beforeV-band maximum light. This data set increases the total number of publicly available premaximum-light SN Ic spectra by 25%, and we provide publicly available SNID templates that will significantly aid in the fast identification of young SNe Ic in the future. We present a detailed analysis of these spectra, including Feii5169 velocity measurements, Oi7774 line strengths, and continuum shapes. We compare our results to published samples of stripped SNe in the literature and find one SN in our sample that stands out. SN 2019ewu has a unique combination of features for an SN Ic: an extremely blue continuum, high absorption velocities, a P Cygni–shaped feature almost 2 weeks before maximum light that TARDIS radiative transfer modeling attributes to Ciirather than Hα, and weak or nonexistent Oi7774 absorption feature until maximum light.

     
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  5. Abstract

    Few published ultraviolet (UV) spectra exist for stripped-envelope supernovae and none to date for broad-lined Type Ic supernovae (SNe Ic-bl). These objects have extremely high ejecta velocities and are the only supernova type directly linked to gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Here we present two epochs of HST/STIS spectra of the SN Ic-bl 2014ad, the first UV spectra for this class. We supplement this with 26 new epochs of ground-based optical spectra, augmenting a rich spectral time series. The UV spectra do not show strong features and are consistent with broadened versions of other SN Ic spectra observed in the UV. We measure Feii5169 Å velocities and show that SN 2014ad has even higher ejecta velocities than most SNe Ic both with and without observed GRBs. We construct models of the SN 2014ad UV+optical spectra usingtardis, a 1D Monte Carlo radiative-transfer spectral synthesis code. The models fit the data well at multiple epochs in the optical but underestimate the flux in the UV, likely due to simplifying assumptions. We find that high densities at high velocities are needed to reproduce the spectra, with ∼3Mof material atv> 22,000 km s−1, assuming spherical symmetry. Our nebular line fits suggest a steep density profile at low velocities. Together, these results imply a higher total ejecta mass than estimated from previous light-curve analysis and expected from theory. This may be reconciled by a flattening of the density profile at low velocity and extra emission near the center of the ejecta.

     
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  6. Abstract

    We present very early photometric and spectroscopic observations of the Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) 2023bee, starting about 8 hr after the explosion, which reveal a strong excess in the optical and nearest UV (UandUVW1) bands during the first several days of explosion. This data set allows us to probe the nature of the binary companion of the exploding white dwarf and the conditions leading to its ignition. We find a good match to the Kasen model in which a main-sequence companion star stings the ejecta with a shock as they buzz past. Models of double detonations, shells of radioactive nickel near the surface, interaction with circumstellar material, and pulsational delayed detonations do not provide good matches to our light curves. We also observe signatures of unburned material, in the form of carbon absorption, in our earliest spectra. Our radio nondetections place a limit on the mass-loss rate from the putative companion that rules out a red giant but allows a main-sequence star. We discuss our results in the context of other similar SNe Ia in the literature.

     
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  7. Abstract

    We present five far- and near-ultraviolet spectra of the Type II plateau supernova, SN 2022acko, obtained 5, 6, 7, 19, and 21 days after explosion, all observed with the Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. The first three epochs are earlier than any Type II plateau supernova has been observed in the far-ultraviolet revealing unprecedented characteristics. These three spectra are dominated by strong lines, primarily from metals, which contrasts with the featureless early optical spectra. The flux decreases over the initial time series as the ejecta cool and line blanketing takes effect. We model this unique data set with the non–local thermodynamic equilibrium radiation transport codeCMFGEN, finding a good match to the explosion of a low-mass red supergiant with energyEkin= 6 × 1050erg. With these models we identify, for the first time, the ions that dominate the early ultraviolet spectra. We present optical photometry and spectroscopy, showing that SN 2022acko has a peak absolute magnitude ofV= − 15.4 mag and plateau length of ∼115 days. The spectra closely resemble those of SN 2005cs and SN 2012A. Using the combined optical and ultraviolet spectra, we report the fraction of flux as a function of bluest wavelength on days 5, 7, and 19. We create a spectral time-series of Type II supernovae in the ultraviolet, demonstrating the rapid decline of flux over the first few weeks of evolution. Future observations of Type II supernovae are required to map out the landscape of exploding red supergiants, with and without circumstellar material, which is best revealed in high-quality ultraviolet spectra.

     
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  8. Abstract

    We present new 0.3–21μm photometry of SN 2021aefx in the spiral galaxy NGC 1566 at +357 days afterB-band maximum, including the first detection of any Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) at >15μm. These observations follow earlier JWST observations of SN 2021aefx at +255 days after the time of maximum brightness, allowing us to probe the temporal evolution of the emission properties. We measure the fraction of flux emerging at different wavelengths and its temporal evolution. Additionally, the integrated 0.3–14μm decay rate of Δm0.3–14= 1.35 ± 0.05 mag/100 days is higher than the decline rate from the radioactive decay of56Co of ∼1.2 mag/100 days. The most plausible explanation for this discrepancy is that flux is shifting to >14μm, and future JWST observations of SNe Ia will be able to directly test this hypothesis. However, models predicting nonradiative energy loss cannot be excluded with the present data.

     
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  9. Abstract

    We present high-cadence optical and ultraviolet light curves of the normal Type Ia supernova (SN) 2021aefx, which shows an early bump during the first two days of observation. This bump may be a signature of interaction between the exploding white dwarf and a nondegenerate binary companion, or it may be intrinsic to the white dwarf explosion mechanism. In the case of the former, the short duration of the bump implies a relatively compact main-sequence companion star, although this conclusion is viewing-angle dependent. Our best-fit companion-shocking and double-detonation models both overpredict the UV luminosity during the bump, and existing nickel-shell models do not match the strength and timescale of the bump. We also present nebular spectra of SN 2021aefx, which do not show the hydrogen or helium emission expected from a nondegenerate companion, as well as a radio nondetection that rules out all symbiotic progenitor systems and most accretion disk winds. Our analysis places strong but conflicting constraints on the progenitor of SN 2021aefx; no current model can explain all of our observations.

     
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  10. Abstract

    We present optical, infrared, ultraviolet, and radio observations of SN 2022xkq, an underluminous fast-declining Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) in NGC 1784 (D≈ 31 Mpc), from <1 to 180 days after explosion. The high-cadence observations of SN 2022xkq, a photometrically transitional and spectroscopically 91bg-like SN Ia, cover the first days and weeks following explosion, which are critical to distinguishing between explosion scenarios. The early light curve of SN 2022xkq has a red early color and exhibits a flux excess that is more prominent in redder bands; this is the first time such a feature has been seen in a transitional/91bg-like SN Ia. We also present 92 optical and 19 near-infrared (NIR) spectra, beginning 0.4 days after explosion in the optical and 2.6 days after explosion in the NIR. SN 2022xkq exhibits a long-lived Ci1.0693μm feature that persists until 5 days post-maximum. We also detect Ciiλ6580 in the pre-maximum optical spectra. These lines are evidence for unburnt carbon that is difficult to reconcile with the double detonation of a sub-Chandrasekhar mass white dwarf. No existing explosion model can fully explain the photometric and spectroscopic data set of SN 2022xkq, but the considerable breadth of the observations is ideal for furthering our understanding of the processes that produce faint SNe Ia.

     
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