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Creators/Authors contains: "Kwok, Lindsey A."

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  1. Abstract

    Few published ultraviolet (UV) spectra exist for stripped-envelope supernovae and none to date for broad-lined Type Ic supernovae (SNe Ic-bl). These objects have extremely high ejecta velocities and are the only supernova type directly linked to gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Here we present two epochs of HST/STIS spectra of the SN Ic-bl 2014ad, the first UV spectra for this class. We supplement this with 26 new epochs of ground-based optical spectra, augmenting a rich spectral time series. The UV spectra do not show strong features and are consistent with broadened versions of other SN Ic spectra observed in the UV. We measure Feii5169 Å velocities and show that SN 2014ad has even higher ejecta velocities than most SNe Ic both with and without observed GRBs. We construct models of the SN 2014ad UV+optical spectra usingtardis, a 1D Monte Carlo radiative-transfer spectral synthesis code. The models fit the data well at multiple epochs in the optical but underestimate the flux in the UV, likely due to simplifying assumptions. We find that high densities at high velocities are needed to reproduce the spectra, with ∼3Mof material atv> 22,000 km s−1, assuming spherical symmetry. Our nebular line fits suggest a steep density profilemore »at low velocities. Together, these results imply a higher total ejecta mass than estimated from previous light-curve analysis and expected from theory. This may be reconciled by a flattening of the density profile at low velocity and extra emission near the center of the ejecta.

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  2. Abstract We present high-cadence optical and ultraviolet light curves of the normal Type Ia supernova (SN) 2021aefx, which shows an early bump during the first two days of observation. This bump may be a signature of interaction between the exploding white dwarf and a nondegenerate binary companion, or it may be intrinsic to the white dwarf explosion mechanism. In the case of the former, the short duration of the bump implies a relatively compact main-sequence companion star, although this conclusion is viewing-angle dependent. Our best-fit companion-shocking and double-detonation models both overpredict the UV luminosity during the bump, and existing nickel-shell models do not match the strength and timescale of the bump. We also present nebular spectra of SN 2021aefx, which do not show the hydrogen or helium emission expected from a nondegenerate companion, as well as a radio nondetection that rules out all symbiotic progenitor systems and most accretion disk winds. Our analysis places strong but conflicting constraints on the progenitor of SN 2021aefx; no current model can explain all of our observations.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2023