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  1. We investigate the influence of the host matrix on the photothermally driven actuation performance of negatively photochromic, donor−acceptor Stenhouse adduct (DASA)-based polymers. Using a modular Diels−Alder “click” platform, we designed polymeric materials with varying DASA incorporation and investigated the relationships between the material composition and the resulting physical, mechanical, and photoswitching properties. We demonstrate that increasing the DASA concentration in polymer conjugates has a dramatic effect on the material’s physical and mechanical properties, such as the glass transition temperature (Tg) and elastic modulus, as well as the photoswitching properties, which are found to be highly dependent on Tg. We establish using a simple photoresponsive bilayer that actuation performance is controlled by the bilayer stiffness rather than the photochrome incorporation of DASA. Finally, we report and compare the light-induced property changes in Tg and the elastic modulus between the materials comprising the open or closed forms of DASAs. Our results demonstrate the importance of designing a material that is stiff enough to provide the mechanical strength required for actuation under load, but soft enough to reversibly switch at the operational temperature and provide key considerations for the development of application-geared photoswitchable materials.
  2. Abstract The Review summarizes much of particle physics and cosmology. Using data from previous editions, plus 2,143 new measurements from 709 papers, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons and the recently discovered Higgs boson, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as supersymmetric particles, heavy bosons, axions, dark photons, etc. Particle properties and search limits are listed in Summary Tables. We give numerous tables, figures, formulae, and reviews of topics such as Higgs Boson Physics, Supersymmetry, Grand Unified Theories, Neutrino Mixing, Dark Energy, Dark Matter, Cosmology, Particle Detectors, Colliders, Probability and Statistics. Among the 120 reviews are many that are new or heavily revised, including a new review on Machine Learning, and one on Spectroscopy of Light Meson Resonances. The Review is divided into two volumes. Volume 1 includes the Summary Tables and 97 review articles. Volume 2 consists of the Particle Listings and contains also 23 reviews that address specific aspects of the data presented in the Listings. The complete Review (both volumes) is published online on the website of the Particle Data Group (pdg.lbl.gov) and in a journal. Volume 1 is available in print as the PDG Book. Amore »Particle Physics Booklet with the Summary Tables and essential tables, figures, and equations from selected review articles is available in print, as a web version optimized for use on phones, and as an Android app.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2023
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2023
  5. A bstract We present a search for the charged lepton-flavor-violating decays ϒ(1 S ) → ℓ ± ℓ ′ ∓ and radiative charged lepton-flavour-violating decays ϒ(1 S ) → γ ℓ ± ℓ ′ ∓ [ ℓ , ℓ ′ = e, μ, τ ] using the 158 million ϒ(2 S ) sample collected by the Belle detector at the KEKB collider. This search uses ϒ(1 S ) mesons produced in ϒ(2 S ) → π + π − ϒ(1 S ) transitions. We do not find any significant signal, so we provide upper limits on the branching fractions at the 90% confidence level.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2023
  6. A bstract We present the first measurement of the branching fraction of the singly Cabibbo-suppressed (SCS) decay $$ {\Lambda}_c^{+} $$ Λ c + → pη ′ with η ′ → ηπ + π − , using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 981 fb − 1 , collected by the Belle detector at the KEKB e + e − asymmetric-energy collider. A significant $$ {\Lambda}_c^{+} $$ Λ c + → pη ′ signal is observed for the first time with a signal significance of 5.4 σ . The relative branching fraction with respect to the normalization mode $$ {\Lambda}_c^{+} $$ Λ c + → pK − π + is measured to be $$ \frac{\mathcal{B}\left({\Lambda}_c^{+}\to p\eta^{\prime}\right)}{\mathcal{B}\left({\Lambda}_c^{+}\to {pK}^{-}{\pi}^{+}\right)}=\left(7.54\pm 1.32\pm 0.73\right)\times {10}^{-3}, $$ B Λ c + → pη ′ B Λ c + → pK − π + = 7.54 ± 1.32 ± 0.73 × 10 − 3 , where the uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively. Using the world-average value of $$ \mathcal{B}\left({\Lambda}_c^{+}\to {pK}^{-}{\pi}^{+}\right) $$ B Λ c + → pK − π + = (6 . 28 ± 0 . 32) × 10 − 2 , we obtain $$ \mathcal{B}\left({\Lambda}_c^{+}\to p\eta^{\prime}\right)=\left(4.73\pm 0.82\pm 0.46\pm 0.24\right)\times {10}^{-4}, $$ Bmore »Λ c + → pη ′ = 4.73 ± 0.82 ± 0.46 ± 0.24 × 10 − 4 , where the uncertainties are statistical, systematic, and from $$ \mathcal{B}\left({\Lambda}_c^{+}\to {pK}^{-}{\pi}^{+}\right) $$ B Λ c + → pK − π + , respectively.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023