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  1. Abstract

    The strong sea‐surface temperature (SST) gradient associated with the Gulf Stream (GS) is widely acknowledged to play an important role in shaping mid‐latitude weather and climate. Despite this, an index for the GS SST gradient has not yet been standardized in the literature. This paper introduces a monthly index for the large‐scale SST gradient across the separated GS based on the time‐varying GS position detected from sea‐surface height. Analysis suggests that the variations in the monthly average SST gradient throughout the year result primarily from SST variability to the north of the GS, with little contribution from SST to the south. The index exhibits a weak periodicity at ∼2 years. Sea level pressure and turbulent heat flux patterns suggest that variability in the large‐scale SST gradient is related to atmospheric (rather than oceanic) forcing. Ocean‐to‐atmosphere feedback does not persist throughout the year, but there is some evidence of wintertime feedback.

  2. We investigate the influence of the host matrix on the photothermally driven actuation performance of negatively photochromic, donor−acceptor Stenhouse adduct (DASA)-based polymers. Using a modular Diels−Alder “click” platform, we designed polymeric materials with varying DASA incorporation and investigated the relationships between the material composition and the resulting physical, mechanical, and photoswitching properties. We demonstrate that increasing the DASA concentration in polymer conjugates has a dramatic effect on the material’s physical and mechanical properties, such as the glass transition temperature (Tg) and elastic modulus, as well as the photoswitching properties, which are found to be highly dependent on Tg. We establish using a simple photoresponsive bilayer that actuation performance is controlled by the bilayer stiffness rather than the photochrome incorporation of DASA. Finally, we report and compare the light-induced property changes in Tg and the elastic modulus between the materials comprising the open or closed forms of DASAs. Our results demonstrate the importance of designing a material that is stiff enough to provide the mechanical strength required for actuation under load, but soft enough to reversibly switch at the operational temperature and provide key considerations for the development of application-geared photoswitchable materials.
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  4. A bstract Charged-lepton-flavor-violation is predicted in several new physics scenarios. We update the analysis of τ lepton decays into a light charged lepton ( ℓ = e ± or μ ± ) and a vector meson ( V 0 = ρ 0 , ϕ , ω , K *0 , or $$ \overline{K} $$ K ¯ *0 ) using 980 fb − 1 of data collected with the Belle detector at the KEKB collider. No significant excess of such signal events is observed, and thus 90% credibility level upper limits are set on the τ → ℓV 0 branching fractions in the range of (1.7–4 . 3) × 10 − 8 . These limits are improved by 30% on average from the previous results.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
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