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    By means of 3D hydrodynamic simulations, we explore the effects of rotation in the formation of second-generation (SG) stars in globular clusters (GC). Our simulations follow the SG formation in a first-generation (FG) internally rotating GC; SG stars form out of FG asymptotic giant branch (AGB) ejecta and external pristine gas accreted by the system. We have explored two different initial rotational velocity profiles for the FG cluster and two different inclinations of the rotational axis with respect to the direction of motion of the external infalling gas, whose density has also been varied. For a low (10−24 g cm−3) external gas density, a disc of SG helium-enhanced stars is formed. The SG is characterized by distinct chemo-dynamical phase space patterns: it shows a more rapid rotation than the FG with the helium-enhanced SG subsystem rotating more rapidly than the moderate helium-enhanced one. In models with high external gas density ($10^{-23}\, {\rm g\ cm^{-3}}$), the inner SG disc is disrupted by the early arrival of external gas and only a small fraction of highly enhanced helium stars preserves the rotation acquired at birth. Variations in the inclination angle between the rotation axis and the direction of the infalling gas and the velocity profile can slightly alter the extent of the stellar disc and the rotational amplitude. The results of our simulations illustrate the complex link between dynamical and chemical properties of multiple populations and provide new elements for the interpretation of observational studies and future investigations of the dynamics of multiple-population GCs.

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    We introduce a new set of zoom-in cosmological simulations with sub-pc resolution, intended to model extremely faint, highly magnified star-forming stellar clumps, detected at z = 6.14 thanks to gravitational lensing. The simulations include feedback from individual massive stars (in both the pre-supernova and supernova phases), generated via stochastic, direct sampling of the stellar initial mass function. We adopt a modified ‘delayed cooling’ feedback scheme, specifically created to prevent artificial radiative loss of the energy injected by individual stars in very dense gas (n ∼ 103–105 cm−3). The sites where star formation ignites are characterized by maximum densities of the order of 105 cm−3 and gravitational pressures Pgrav/k >107 K cm−3, corresponding to the values of the local, turbulent regions where the densest stellar aggregates form. The total stellar mass at z = 6.14 is 3.4$\times 10^7~\rm M_{\odot }$, in satisfactory agreement with the observed stellar mass of the observed systems. The most massive clumps have masses of $\sim 10^6~\rm M_{\odot }$ and half-mass sizes of ∼100 pc. These sizes are larger than the observed ones, including also other samples of lensed high-redshift clumps, and imply an average density one orders of magnitude lower than the observed one. In the size–mass plane, our clumps populate a sequence that is intermediate between the ones of observed high-redshift clumps and local dSph galaxies.

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  3. null (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT By means of 3D hydrodynamic simulations, we study how Type Ia supernovae (SNe) explosions affect the star formation history and the chemical properties of second-generation (SG) stars in globular clusters (GC). SG stars are assumed to form once first generation asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars start releasing their ejecta; during this phase, external gas is accreted by the system and SNe Ia begin exploding, carving hot and tenuous bubbles. Given the large uncertainty on SNe Ia explosion times, we test two different values for the ‘delay time’. We run two different models for the external gas density: in the low-density scenario with short delay time, the explosions start at the beginning of the SG star formation, halting it in its earliest phases. The external gas hardly penetrates the system, therefore most SG stars present extreme helium abundances (Y > 0.33). The low-density model with delayed SN explosions has a more extended SG star formation epoch and includes SG stars with modest helium enrichment. On the contrary, the high-density model is weakly affected by SN explosions, with a final SG mass similar to the one obtained without SNe Ia. Most of the stars form from a mix of AGB ejecta and pristine gas and have a modest helium enrichment. We show that gas from SNe Ia may produce an iron spread of ∼0.14 dex, consistent with the spread found in about $20{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ of Galactic GCs, suggesting that SNe Ia might have played a key role in the formation of this sub-sample of GCs. 
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