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  1. Abstract

    While a poleward shift of the near-surface jet and storm track in response to increased greenhouse gases appears to be robust, the magnitude of this change is uncertain and differs across models, and the mechanisms for this change are poorly constrained. An intermediate complexity GCM is used in this study to explore the factors governing the magnitude of the poleward shift and the mechanisms involved. The degree to which parameterized subgrid-scale convection is inhibited has a leading-order effect on the poleward shift, with a simulation with more convection (and less large-scale precipitation) simulating a significantly weaker shift, and eventually no shift at all if convection is strongly preferred over large-scale precipitation. Many of the physical processes proposed to drive the poleward shift are equally active in all simulations (even those with no poleward shift). Hence, we can conclude that these mechanisms are not of leading-order significance for the poleward shift in any of the simulations. The thermodynamic budget, however, provides useful insight into differences in the jet and storm track response among the simulations. It helps identify midlatitude moisture and latent heat release as a crucial differentiator. These results have implications for intermodel spread in the jet, hydrological cycle, and storm track response to increased greenhouse gases in intermodel comparison projects.

     
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  2. Abstract

    Comprehensive climate models exhibit a large spread in the magnitude of projected poleward eddy‐driven jet shift in response to warming. The spread has been connected to the radiative response to warming. To understand how different radiative assumptions alone affect the jet shift in response to warming, we introduce a new clear‐sky longwave radiation hierarchy that spans idealized (gray versus four bands; without or with interactive water vapor) through comprehensive (correlated‐k) radiation in the same general circulation model. The new hierarchy is used in an aquaplanet configuration to explore the impact of radiation on the jet stream response to warming, independent of mean surface temperature and meridional surface temperature gradient responses. The gray radiation scheme produces a split jet and its eddy‐driven jet shifts equatorward as climate warms, whereas the storm track shifts equatorward then poleward. Including four longwave bands leads to a merged jet that shifts slightly poleward with warming, and the storm track shifts monotonically poleward. Including interactive water vapor makes the poleward jet shift comparable to the jet shift with comprehensive radiation and interactive water vapor. These jet and storm track differences are linked to the radiation response of the stratospheric temperature, the tropopause height, and the meridional gradient of the radiative forcing to warming. Dynamically, the equatorward jet shift with the gray scheme is consistent with reduced wave reflection on the poleward flank of the jet, whereas the poleward jet shift with the other schemes is consistent with increased eddy length scale that favors equatorward wave propagation.

     
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