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  1. Abstract

    Infrequent, large‐magnitude discharge (>106 m3/s) outburst floods—megafloods—can play a major role in landscape evolution. Prehistoric glacial lake outburst megafloods transported and deposited large boulders (≥4 m), yet few studies consider their potential lasting impact on river processes and form. We use a numerical model, constrained by observed boulder size distributions, to investigate the fluvial response to boulder deposition by megaflooding in the Yarlung‐Siang River, eastern Himalaya. Results show that boulder deposition changes local channel steepness (ksn) up to ∼180% compared to simulations without boulder bars, introducing >100 meter‐scale knickpoints to the channel that can be sustained for >20 kyr. Simulations demonstrate that deposition of boulders in a single megaflood can have a greater influence onksnthan another common source of fluvial boulders: incision‐rate‐dependent delivery of boulders from hillslopes. Through widespread boulder deposition, megafloods leave a lasting legacy of channel disequilibrium that compounds over multiple floods and persists for millennia.

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  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2024
  4. null (Ed.)
  5. Abstract The Pandora Software Development Kit and algorithm libraries provide pattern-recognition logic essential to the reconstruction of particle interactions in liquid argon time projection chamber detectors. Pandora is the primary event reconstruction software used at ProtoDUNE-SP, a prototype for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment far detector. ProtoDUNE-SP, located at CERN, is exposed to a charged-particle test beam. This paper gives an overview of the Pandora reconstruction algorithms and how they have been tailored for use at ProtoDUNE-SP. In complex events with numerous cosmic-ray and beam background particles, the simulated reconstruction and identification efficiency for triggered test-beam particles is above 80% for the majority of particle type and beam momentum combinations. Specifically, simulated 1 GeV/ c charged pions and protons are correctly reconstructed and identified with efficiencies of 86.1 $$\pm 0.6$$ ± 0.6 % and 84.1 $$\pm 0.6$$ ± 0.6 %, respectively. The efficiencies measured for test-beam data are shown to be within 5% of those predicted by the simulation. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024