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  1. Fourcade, Yoan (Ed.)
  2. Abstract

    A whole‐genome duplication (WGD) doubles the entire genomic content of a species and is thought to have catalysed adaptive radiation in some polyploid‐origin lineages. However, little is known about general consequences of aWGDbecause gene duplicates (i.e., paralogs) are commonly filtered in genomic studies; such filtering may remove substantial portions of the genome in data sets from polyploid‐origin species. We demonstrate a new method that enables genome‐wide scans for signatures of selection at both nonduplicated and duplicated loci by taking locus‐specific copy number into account. We apply this method toRADsequence data from different ecotypes of a polyploid‐origin salmonid (Oncorhynchus nerka) and reveal signatures of divergent selection that would have been missed if duplicated loci were filtered. We also find conserved signatures of elevated divergence at pairs of homeologous chromosomes with residual tetrasomic inheritance, suggesting that joint evolution of some nondiverged gene duplicates may affect the adaptive potential of these genes. These findings illustrate that including duplicated loci in genomic analyses enables novel insights into the evolutionary consequences ofWGDs and local segmental gene duplications.

     
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  3. Abstract

    Numerous studies of population genetics in salmonids and other anadromous fishes have revealed that population structure is generally organized into geographic hierarchies (isolation by distance), but significant structure can exist in proximate populations due to varying selective pressures (isolation by adaptation). In Chignik Lakes, Alaska, anadromous Dolly Varden char (Salvelinus malma) spawn in nearly all accessible streams throughout the watershed, including those draining directly to an estuary, Chignik Lagoon, into larger rivers, and into lakes. Collections of Dolly Varden fry from 13 streams throughout the system revealed low levels of population structure among streams emptying into freshwater. However, much stronger genetic differentiation was detected between streams emptying into freshwater and streams flowing directly into estuarine environments. This fine‐scale reproductive isolation without any physical barriers to migration is likely driven by differences in selection pressures across freshwater and estuarine environments. Estuary tributaries had fewer larger, older juveniles, suggesting an alternative life history of smolting and migration to the marine environment at a much smaller size than occurs in the other populations. Therefore, genetic data were consistent with a scenario where isolation by adaptation occurs between populations of Dolly Varden in the study system, and ecological data suggest that this isolation may partially be a result of a novel Dolly Varden life history of seawater tolerance at a smaller size than previously recognized.

     
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