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  1. SUMMARY We present models of crustal and uppermost mantle structure beneath the Hawaiian Swell and surrounding region. The models were derived from ambient-noise intermediate-period Rayleigh-wave phase velocities and from seafloor compliance that were estimated from continuous seismic and pressure recordings collected during the Hawaiian Plume-Lithosphere Undersea Mantle Experiment (PLUME). We jointly inverted these data at the locations of over 50 ocean-bottom instruments, after accounting for variations in local bathymetry and sediment properties. Our results suggest that the crystalline crust is up to 15 km thick beneath the swell and up to 23 km thick closer to the islands. Anomalously thick crust extends towards the older seamounts, downstream of Hawaii. In a second region, anomalies immediately to the south of Hawaii may be associated with the leading edge of the shallow Hawaiian magma conduit. In a third region, thickened crust to the immediate west of Hawaii may be related to Cretaceous seamounts. Low seismic velocities identified in the uppermost mantle to the northeast of Hawaii may be linked to the Molokai fracture zone and may be manifest of complex non-vertical pathways of melt through the upper lithosphere. Velocity anomalies decrease in amplitude towards the surface, suggesting that melt becomes focused into conduits atmore »depths between 20 and 40 km that escape the resolution capabilities of our data set.« less