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  1. Stably stratified roughness sublayer flows are ubiquitous yet remain difficult to represent in models and to interpret using field experiments. Here, continuous high‐frequency potential temperature profiles from the forest floor up to 6.5 times the canopy height observed with distributed temperature sensing (DTS) are used to link eddy topology to roughness sublayer stability correction functions and coupling between air layers within and above the canopy. The experiments are conducted at two forest stands classified as hydrodynamically sparse and dense. Near‐continuous profiles of eddy sizes (length scales) and effective mixing lengths for heat are derived from the observed profiles using a novel conditional sampling approach. The approach utilizes potential temperature isoline fluctuations from a statically stable background state. The transport of potential temperature by an observed eddy is assumed to be conserved (adiabatic movement) and we assume that irreversible heat exchange between the eddy and the surrounding background occurs along the (vertical) periphery of the eddy. This assumption is analogous to Prandtl's mixing‐length concept, where momentum is transported rapidly vertically and then equilibrated with the local mean velocity gradient. A distinct dependence of the derived length scales on background stratification, height above ground, and canopy characteristics emerges from the observed profiles. Implications of these findings for (1) the failure of Monin–Obukhov similarity in the roughness sublayer and (2) above‐canopy flow coupling to the forest floor are examined. The findings have practical applications in terms of analysing similar DTS data sets with the proposed approach, modelling roughness sublayer flows, and interpreting nocturnal eddy covariance measurements above tall forested canopies. 
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  2. Abstract

    The terrestrial net ecosystem productivity (NEP) has increased during the past three decades, but the mechanisms responsible are still unclear. We analyzed 17 years (2001–2017) of eddy‐covariance measurements of NEP, evapotranspiration (ET) and light and water use efficiency from a boreal coniferous forest in Southern Finland for trends and inter‐annual variability (IAV). The forest was a mean annual carbon sink (252 [42] gC ), and NEP increased at rate +6.4–7.0 gC (or ca. +2.5% ) during the period. This was attributed to the increasing gross‐primary productivity GPP and occurred without detectable change in ET. The start of annual carbon uptake period was advanced by 0.7 d , and increase in GPP and NEP outside the main growing season contributed ca. one‐third and one‐fourth of the annual trend, respectively. Meteorological factors were responsible for the IAV of fluxes but did not explain the long‐term trends. The growing season GPP trend was strongest in ample light during the peak growing season. Using a multi‐layer ecosystem model, we showed that direct fertilization effect diminishes when moving from leaf to ecosystem, and only 30–40% of the observed ecosystem GPP increase could be attributed to . The increasing trend in leaf‐area index (LAI), stimulated by forest thinning in 2002, was the main driver of the enhanced GPP and NEP of the mid‐rotation managed forest. It also compensated for the decrease of mean leaf stomatal conductance with increasing and LAI, explaining the apparent proportionality between observed GPP and trends. The results emphasize that attributing trends to their physical and physiological drivers is challenged by strong IAV, and uncertainty of LAI and species composition changes due to the dynamic flux footprint. The results enlighten the underlying mechanisms responsible for the increasing terrestrial carbon uptake in the boreal zone.

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  3. null (Ed.)