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  1. Abstract

    Planets form in dusty, gas-rich disks around young stars, while at the same time, the planet formation process alters the physical and chemical structure of the disk itself. Embedded planets will locally heat the disk and sublimate volatile-rich ices, or in extreme cases, result in shocks that sputter heavy atoms such as Si from dust grains. This should cause chemical asymmetries detectable in molecular gas observations. Using high-angular-resolution ALMA archival data of the HD 169142 disk, we identify compact SOJ= 88− 77and SiSJ= 19 − 18 emission coincident with the position of a ∼ 2MJupplanet seen as a localized, Keplerian NIR feature within a gas-depleted, annular dust gap at ≈38 au. The SiS emission is located along an azimuthal arc and has a morphology similar to that of a known12CO kinematic excess. This is the first tentative detection of SiS emission in a protoplanetary disk and suggests that the planet is driving sufficiently strong shocks to produce gas-phase SiS. We also report the discovery of compact12CO and13COJ= 3 − 2 emission coincident with the planet location. Taken together, a planet-driven outflow provides the best explanation for the properties of the observed chemical asymmetries. We also resolve a bright, azimuthally asymmetric SO ring at ≈24 au. While most of this SO emission originates from ice sublimation, its asymmetric distribution implies azimuthal temperature variations driven by a misaligned inner disk or planet–disk interactions. Overall, the HD 169142 disk shows several distinct chemical signatures related to giant planet formation and presents a powerful template for future searches of planet-related chemical asymmetries in protoplanetary disks.

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  2. Abstract We present proper motion measurements of the oxygen-rich ejecta of the LMC supernova remnant N132D using two epochs of Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys data spanning 16 years. The proper motions of 120 individual knots of oxygen-rich gas were measured and used to calculate a center of expansion (CoE) of α = 5 h 25 m 01.ˢ71 and δ = −69°38′41.″64 (J2000) with a 1 σ uncertainty of 2.″90. This new CoE measurement is 9.″2 and 10.″8 from two previous CoE estimates based on the geometry of the optically emitting ejecta. We also derive an explosion age of 2770 ± 500 yr, which is consistent with recent age estimates of ≈2500 yr made from 3D ejecta reconstructions. We verified our estimates of the CoE and age using a new automated procedure that detected and tracked the proper motions of 137 knots, with 73 knots that overlap with the visually identified knots. We find that the proper motions of the ejecta are still ballistic, despite the remnant’s age, and are consistent with the notion that the ejecta are expanding into an interstellar medium cavity. Evidence for explosion asymmetry from the parent supernova is also observed. Using the visually measured proper motion measurements and corresponding CoE and age, we compare N132D to other supernova remnants with proper motion ejecta studies. 
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  3. Abstract

    We present MIRI Medium-resolution Spectrograph observations of the large, multi-gapped protoplanetary disk around the T Tauri star AS 209. The observations reveal hundreds of water vapor lines from 4.9–25.5μm toward the inner ∼1 au in the disk, including the first detection of rovibrational water emission in this disk. The spectrum is dominated by hot (∼800 K) water vapor and OH gas, with only marginal detections of CO2, HCN, and a possible colder water vapor component. Using slab models with a detailed treatment of opacities and line overlap, we retrieve the column density, emitting area, and excitation temperature of water vapor and OH, and provide upper limits for the observable mass of other molecules. Compared to MIRI spectra of other T Tauri disks, the inner disk of AS 209 does not appear to be atypically depleted in CO2nor HCN. Based on Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph observations, we further find evidence for molecular emission variability over a 10 yr baseline. Water, OH, and CO2line luminosities have decreased by factors of 2–4 in the new MIRI epoch, yet there are minimal continuum emission variations. The origin of this variability is yet to be understood.

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  4. Abstract

    Theoretical models and observations suggest that the abundances of molecular ions in protoplanetary disks should be highly sensitive to the variable ionization conditions set by the young central star. We present a search for temporal flux variability of HCO+J= 1–0, which was observed as a part of the Molecules with Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) at Planet-forming Scales ALMA Large Program. We split out and imaged the line and continuum data for each individual day the five sources were observed (HD 163296, AS 209, GM Aur, MWC 480, and IM Lup, with between three and six unique visits per source). Significant enhancement (>3σ) was not observed, but we find variations in the spectral profiles in all five disks. Variations in AS 209, GM Aur, and HD 163296 are tentatively attributed to variations in HCO+flux, while variations in IM Lup and MWC 480 are most likely introduced by differences in theuvcoverage, which impact the amount of recovered flux during imaging. The tentative detections and low degree of variability are consistent with expectations of X-ray flare-driven HCO+variability, which requires relatively large flares to enhance the HCO+rotational emission at significant (>20%) levels. These findings also demonstrate the need for dedicated monitoring campaigns with high signal-to-noise ratios to fully characterize X-ray flare-driven chemistry.

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  5. Abstract

    We study the kinematics of the AS 209 disk using theJ= 2–1 transitions of12CO,13CO, and C18O. We derive the radial, azimuthal, and vertical velocity of the gas, taking into account the lowered emission surface near the annular gap at ≃1.″7 (200 au) within which a candidate circumplanetary-disk-hosting planet has been reported previously. In12CO and13CO, we find a coherent upward flow arising from the gap. The upward gas flow is as fast as 150 m s−1in the regions traced by12CO emission, which corresponds to about 50% of the local sound speed or 6% of the local Keplerian speed. Such an upward gas flow is difficult to reconcile with an embedded planet alone. Instead, we propose that magnetically driven winds via ambipolar diffusion are triggered by the low gas density within the planet-carved gap, dominating the kinematics of the gap region. We estimate the ambipolar Elsässer number, Am, using the HCO+column density as a proxy for ion density and find that Am is ∼0.1 at the radial location of the upward flow. This value is broadly consistent with the value at which numerical simulations find that ambipolar diffusion drives strong winds. We hypothesize that the activation of magnetically driven winds in a planet-carved gap can control the growth of the embedded planet. We provide a scaling relationship that describes the wind-regulated terminal mass: adopting parameters relevant to 100 au from a solar-mass star, we find that the wind-regulated terminal mass is about one Jupiter mass, which may help explain the dearth of directly imaged super-Jovian-mass planets.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  6. Abstract

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array observations with a 800 au resolution and radiative-transfer modeling of the inner part (r≈ 6000 au) of the ionized accretion flow around a compact star cluster in formation at the center of the luminous ultracompact Hiiregion G10.6-0.4. We modeled the flow with an ionized Keplerian disk with and without radial motions in its outer part, or with an external Ulrich envelope. The Markov Chain Monte Carlo fits to the data give total stellar massesMfrom 120 to 200M, with much smaller ionized-gas massesMion-gas= 0.2–0.25M. The stellar mass is distributed within the gravitational radiusRg≈ 1000 to 1500 au, where the ionized gas is bound. The viewing inclination angle from the face-on orientation isi= 49°–56°. Radial motions at radiir>Rgconverge tovr,0≈ 8.7 km s−1, or about the speed of sound of ionized gas, indicating that this gas is marginally unbound at most. From additional constraints on the ionizing-photon rate and far-IR luminosity of the region, we conclude that the stellar cluster consists of a few massive stars withMstar= 32–60M, or one star in this range of masses accompanied by a population of lower-mass stars. Any active accretion of ionized gas onto the massive (proto)stars is residual. The inferred cluster density is very large, comparable to that reported at similar scales in the Galactic center. Stellar interactions are likely to occur within the next million years.

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  7. Abstract

    We present the results from an Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) 1.3 mm continuum and12CO (J= 2 − 1) line survey spread over 10 deg2in the Serpens star-forming region of 320 young stellar objects, 302 of which are likely members of Serpens (16 Class I, 35 flat-spectrum, 235 Class II, and 16 Class III). From the continuum data, we derive disk dust masses and show that they systematically decline from Class I to flat-spectrum to Class II sources. Grouped by stellar evolutionary state, the disk mass distributions are similar to other young (<3 Myr) regions, indicating that the large-scale environment of a star-forming region does not strongly affect its overall disk dust mass properties. These comparisons between populations reinforce previous conclusions that disks in the Ophiuchus star-forming region have anomalously low masses at all evolutionary stages. Additionally, we find a single deeply embedded protostar that has not been documented elsewhere in the literature and, from the CO line data, 15 protostellar outflows, which we catalog here.

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  8. Abstract

    Deuterium fractionation provides a window into the thermal history of volatiles in the solar system and protoplanetary disks. While evidence of active molecular deuteration has been observed toward a handful of disks, it remains unclear whether this chemistry affects the composition of forming planetesimals due to limited observational constraints on the radial and vertical distribution of deuterated molecules. To shed light on this question, we introduce new Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array observations of DCO+and DCNJ= 2–1 at an angular resolution of 0.″5 (30 au) and combine them with archival data of higher energy transitions toward the protoplanetary disk around TW Hya. We carry out a radial excitation analysis assuming both LTE and non-LTE to localize the physical conditions traced by DCO+and DCN emission in the disk, thus assessing deuterium fractionation efficiencies and pathways at different disk locations. We find similar disk-averaged column densities of 1.9 × 1012and 9.8 × 1011cm−2for DCO+and DCN, with typical kinetic temperatures for both molecules of 20–30 K, indicating a common origin near the comet- and planet-forming midplane. The observed DCO+/DCN abundance ratio, combined with recent modeling results, provide tentative evidence of a gas-phase C/O enhancement within <40 au. Observations of DCO+and DCN in other disks, as well as HCN and HCO+, will be necessary to place the trends exhibited by TW Hya in context, and fully constrain the main deuteration mechanisms in disks.

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  9. Abstract

    High-spatial-resolution observations of CO isotopologue line emission in protoplanetary disks at mid-inclinations (≈30°–75°) allow us to characterize the gas structure in detail, including radial and vertical substructures, emission surface heights and their dependencies on source characteristics, and disk temperature profiles. By combining observations of a suite of CO isotopologues, we can map the two-dimensional (r,z) disk structure from the disk upper atmosphere, as traced by CO, to near the midplane, as probed by less abundant isotopologues. Here, we present high-angular-resolution (≲0.″1 to ≈0.″2; ≈15–30 au) observations of CO,13CO, and C18O in either or bothJ= 2–1 andJ= 3–2 lines in the transition disks around DM Tau, Sz 91, LkCa 15, and HD 34282. We derived line emission surfaces in CO for all disks and in13CO for the DM Tau and LkCa 15 disks. With these observations, we do not resolve the vertical structure of C18O in any disk, which is instead consistent with C18O emission originating from the midplane. Both theJ= 2–1 andJ= 3–2 lines show similar heights. Using the derived emission surfaces, we computed radial and vertical gas temperature distributions for each disk, including empirical temperature models for the DM Tau and LkCa 15 disks. After combining our sample with literature sources, we find that13CO line emitting heights are also tentatively linked with source characteristics, e.g., stellar host mass, gas temperature, disk size, and show steeper trends than seen in CO emission surfaces.

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