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Creators/Authors contains: "Law, Nicholas M."

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  1. Abstract

    Astrophysical transients with rapid developments on subhour timescales are intrinsically rare. Due to their short durations, events like stellar superflares, optical flashes from gamma-ray bursts, and shock breakouts from young supernovae are difficult to identify on timescales that enable spectroscopic follow-up. This paper presents the Evryscope Fast Transient Engine (EFTE), a new data reduction pipeline that is designed to provide low-latency transient alerts from the Evryscopes—a north–south pair of ultra-wide-field telescopes with an instantaneous footprint covering 38% of the entire sky—and tools for building long-term light curves from Evryscope data.EFTEleverages the optical stability of the Evryscopes by using a simple direct image subtraction routine that is suited to continuously monitoring the transient sky at a cadence of a minute. Candidates are produced within the base Evryscope 2 minute cadence for 98.5% of images, and internally filtered usingvetnet, a convolutional neural network real–bogus classifier.EFTEprovides an extensible and robust architecture for transient surveys probing similar timescales, and serves as the software test bed for the real-time analysis pipelines and public data distribution systems for the Argus Array, a next-generation all-sky observatory with a data rate 62 times higher than that of Evryscope.

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  2. Marshall, Heather K. ; Spyromilio, Jason ; Usuda, Tomonori (Ed.)
  3. Marshall, Heather K. ; Spyromilio, Jason ; Usuda, Tomonori (Ed.)
  4. Marshall, Heather K. ; Spyromilio, Jason ; Usuda, Tomonori (Ed.)
  5. Marshall, Heather K. ; Spyromilio, Jason ; Usuda, Tomonori (Ed.)
  6. Marshall, Heather K. ; Spyromilio, Jason ; Usuda, Tomonori (Ed.)
  7. Abstract

    X-ray observations of low-mass stars in open clusters are critical to understanding the dependence of magnetic activity on stellar properties and their evolution. Praesepe and the Hyades, two of the nearest, most-studied open clusters, are among the best available laboratories for examining the dependence of magnetic activity on rotation for stars with masses ≲1M. We present an updated study of the rotation–X-ray activity relation in the two clusters. We updated membership catalogs that combine pre-Gaia catalogs with new catalogs based on Gaia Data Release 2. The resulting catalogs are the most inclusive ones for both clusters: 1739 Praesepe and 1315 Hyades stars. We collected X-ray detections for cluster members, for which we analyzed, re-analyzed, or collated data from ROSAT, the Chandra X-ray Observatory, the Neil Gehrels Swift Observatory, and XMM-Newton. We have detections for 326 Praesepe and 462 Hyades members, of which 273 and 164, respectively, have rotation periods—an increase of 6× relative to what was previously available. We find that at ≈700 Myr, only M dwarfs remain saturated in X-rays, with only tentative evidence for supersaturation. We also find a tight relation between the Rossby number and fractional X-ray luminosityLX/Lbolin unsaturated single members, suggesting a power-law index between −3.2 and −3.9. Lastly, we find no difference in the coronal parameters between binary and single members. These results provide essential insight into the relative efficiency of magnetic heating of the stars’ atmospheres, thereby informing the development of robust age-rotation-activity relations.

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  8. Abstract New mass-produced, wide-field, small-aperture telescopes have the potential to revolutionize ground-based astronomy by greatly reducing the cost of collecting area. In this paper, we introduce a new class of large telescope based on these advances: an all-sky, arcsecond-resolution, 1000 telescope array which builds a simultaneously high-cadence and deep survey by observing the entire sky all night. As a concrete example, we describe the Argus Array, a 5 m-class telescope with an all-sky field of view and the ability to reach extremely high cadences using low-noise CMOS detectors. Each 55 GPix Argus exposure covers 20% of the entire sky to m g = 19.6 each minute and m g = 21.9 each hour; a high-speed mode will allow sub-second survey cadences for short times. Deep coadds will reach m g = 23.6 every five nights over 47% of the sky; a larger-aperture array telescope, with an étendue close to the Rubin Observatory, could reach m g = 24.3 in five nights. These arrays can build two-color, million-epoch movies of the sky, enabling sensitive and rapid searches for high-speed transients, fast-radio-burst counterparts, gravitational-wave counterparts, exoplanet microlensing events, occultations by distant solar system bodies, and myriad other phenomena. An array of O(1000) telescopes, however, would be one of the most complex astronomical instruments yet built. Standard arrays with hundreds of tracking mounts entail thousands of moving parts and exposed optics, and maintenance costs would rapidly outpace the mass-produced-hardware cost savings compared to a monolithic large telescope. We discuss how to greatly reduce operations costs by placing all optics in thermally controlled, sealed domes with only a few moving parts. Coupled with careful software scope control and use of existing pipelines, we show that the Argus Array could become the deepest and fastest Northern sky survey, with total costs in the $20M range. 
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  9. Abstract

    In order to assess the multiplicity statistics of stars across spectral types and populations in a volume-limited sample, we censused nearby stars for companions with Robo-AO. We report on observations of 1157 stars of all spectral types within 25 pc with decl. >−13° searching for tight companions. We detected 154 companion candidates with separations ranging from ∼0.″15 to 4.″0 and magnitude differences up to Δmi7using the robotic adaptive optics instrument Robo-AO. We confirmed physical association from Gaia EDR3 astrometry for 53 of the companion candidates, 99 remain to be confirmed, and two were ruled out as background objects. We complemented the high-resolution imaging companion search with a search for comoving objects with separations out to 10,000 au in Gaia EDR3, which resulted in an additional 147 companions registered. Of the 301 total companions reported in this study, 49 of them are new discoveries. Out of the 191 stars with significant acceleration measurements in the Hipparcos–Gaia catalog of accelerations, we detect companions around 115 of them, with the significance of the acceleration increasing as the companion separation decreases. From this survey, we report the following multiplicity fractions (compared to literature values): 40.9% ± 3.0% (44%) for FGK stars and 28.2% ± 2.3% (27%) for M stars, as well as higher-order fractions of 5.5% ± 1.1% (11%) and 3.9% ± 0.9% (5%) for FGK stars and M-type stars, respectively.

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  10. null (Ed.)