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  1. Abstract This work studies the use of laser shock peening (LSP) to improve back stress in additively manufactured (AM) 316L parts. Unusual hardening behavior in AM metal due to tortuous microstructure and strong texture poses additional design challenges. Anisotropic mechanical behavior complicates application for mechanical design because 3D printed parts will behave differently than traditionally manufactured parts under the same loading conditions. The prevalence of back-stress hardening or the Bauschinger effect causes reduced fatigue life under random loading and dissipates beneficial compressive residual stresses that prevent crack propagation. LSP is known to improve fatigue life by inducing compressive residual stress and has been applied with promising results to AM metal parts. It is here demonstrated that LSP may also be used as a tool for mitigating tensile back-stress hardening in AM parts, thereby reducing anisotropic hardening behavior and improving design use. It is also shown that the method of application of LSP to additively manufactured parts is key for achieving effective back-stress reduction. Back stress is extracted from additively manufactured dog bone samples built in both XY and XZ directions using hysteresis tensile. Both LSPed and as-built conditions are tested and compared, showing that LSPed samples exhibit a significant reduction to back stress when the laser processing is applied to the sample along the build direction. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) performed under these conditions elucidates how grain morphologies and texture contribute to the observed improvement. Crystal plasticity finite element (CPFE) modeling develops insights as to the mechanisms by which this reduction is achieved in comparison with EBSD results. In particular, the difference in plastic behavior across build orientations of identified crystal planes and grain families are shown to impact the degree of LSP-induced back-stress reduction that is sustained through tensile loading. 
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  2. Abstract Laser shock peening (LSP) is investigated as a potential tool for reducing tensile back stress, shown here applied to rolled and annealed 304L austenitic steel. The back stress of treated and untreated dog-bone samples is extracted from hysteresis tensile testing. Electron back-scatter diffraction (EBSD) and orientation imaging microscopy (OIM) analysis quantify the geometrically necessary dislocation (GND) density distribution of unstrained and strained as well as unpeened and peened conditions. Finite element analysis (FEA) simulation models back stress and residual stress development through tensile testing and LSP treatment using known LSP pressure models and Ziegler's nonlinear kinematic hardening law. Nonlinear regression fitting of tensile testing stress–strain in as-received specimens extracts the kinematic hardening parameters that are used in numerical study. This research shows LSP may be used to overcome manufacturing design challenges presented by yield asymmetry due to back stress in rolled steel. 
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  3. Abstract Metal foam sandwich panels have been the subject of many concept studies, due to their exceptional stiffness, light weight, and crash absorption capacity. Yet, the industrial production of the material has been hampered by the fact that it is challenging to bend the material into practical engineering shapes. Only recently, it has been shown that bending of metal foam sandwich panels is possible using lasers. It was also shown that the material can be bent into Euclidean (2D) geometries, and the governing laser-induced bending mechanisms were analyzed. This study was focused on laser forming of metal foam sandwich panels into non-Euclidean (3D) geometries. It was investigated whether the bending mechanisms and process parameters identified for 2D laser forming translate to 3D deformation. Additionally, the impact of the laser scan length was determined by comparing different scan patterns that achieve the same 3D geometries. It was shown that laser forming could induce 3D deformation necessary for both bowl and saddle shapes, the two fundamental non-Euclidean geometries. The amount of laser-induced bending and in-plane strains vary depending on process conditions and the governing bending mechanisms. Lastly, the laser scan length was shown to become more important for metal foam sandwich panels, where the panel thickness tends to be large. 
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