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  1. Abstract

    It has been suggested before that small-scale magnetic flux rope (SMFR) structures in the solar wind can temporarily trap energetic charged particles. We present the derivation of a new fractional Parker equation for energetic-particle interaction with SMFRs from our pitch-angle-dependent fractional diffusion-advection equation that can account for such trapping effects. The latter was derived previously in le Roux & Zank from the first principles starting with the standard focused transport equation. The new equation features anomalous advection and diffusion terms. It suggests that energetic-particle parallel transport occurs with a decaying efficiency of advection effects as parallel superdiffusion becomes more dominant at late times. Parallel superdiffusion can be linked back to underlying anomalous pitch-angle transport, which might be subdiffusive during interaction with quasi-helical coherent SMFRs. We apply the new equation to time-dependent superdiffusive shock acceleration at a parallel shock. The results show that the superdiffusive-shock-acceleration timescale is fractional, the net fractional differential particle flux is conserved across the shock ignoring particle injection at the shock, and the accelerated particle spectrum at the shock converges to the familiar power-law spectrum predicted by standard steady-state diffusive-shock-acceleration theory at late times. Upstream, as parallel superdiffusion progressively dominates the advection of energetic particles, theirmore »spatial distributions decay on spatial scales that grow with time. Furthermore, superdiffusive parallel shock acceleration is found to be less efficient if parallel anomalous diffusion is more superdiffusive, while perpendicular particle escape from the shock, thought to be subdiffusive during SMFR interaction, is reduced when increasingly subdiffusive.

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