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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2023
  2. Medical image segmentation is one of the most challenging tasks in medical image analysis and widely developed for many clinical applications. While deep learning-based approaches have achieved impressive performance in semantic segmentation, they are limited to pixel-wise settings with imbalanced-class data problems and weak boundary object segmentation in medical images. In this paper, we tackle those limitations by developing a new two-branch deep network architecture which takes both higher level features and lower level features into account. The first branch extracts higher level feature as region information by a common encoder-decoder network structure such as Unet and FCN, whereas the second branch focuses on lower level features as support information around the boundary and processes in parallel to the first branch. Our key contribution is the second branch named Narrow Band Active Contour (NB-AC) attention model which treats the object contour as a hyperplane and all data inside a narrow band as support information that influences the position and orientation of the hyperplane. Our proposed NB-AC attention model incorporates the contour length with the region energy involving a fixed-width band around the curve or surface. The proposed network loss contains two fitting terms: (i) a high level feature (i.e., region)more »fitting term from the first branch; (ii) a lower level feature (i.e., contour) fitting term from the second branch including the (ii1) length of the object contour and (ii2) regional energy functional formed by the homogeneity criterion of both the inner band and outer band neighboring the evolving curve or surface. The proposed NB-AC loss can be incorporated into both 2D and 3D deep network architectures. The proposed network has been evaluated on different challenging medical image datasets, including DRIVE, iSeg17, MRBrainS18 and Brats18. The experimental results have shown that the proposed NB-AC loss outperforms other mainstream loss functions: Cross Entropy, Dice, Focal on two common segmentation frameworks Unet and FCN. Our 3D network which is built upon the proposed NB-AC loss and 3DUnet framework achieved state-of-the-art results on multiple volumetric datasets.« less
  3. The automatic classification of electrocardiogram (ECG) signals has played an important role in cardiovascular diseases diagnosis and prediction. Deep neural networks (DNNs), particularly Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs), have excelled in a variety of intelligent tasks including biomedical and health informatics. Most the existing approaches either partition the ECG time series into a set of segments and apply 1D-CNNs or divide the ECG signal into a set of spectrogram images and apply 2D-CNNs. These studies, however, suffer from the limitation that temporal dependencies between 1D segments or 2D spectrograms are not considered during network construction. Furthermore, meta-data including gender and age has not been well studied in these researches. To address those limitations, we propose a multi-module Recurrent Convolutional Neural Networks (RCNNs) consisting of both CNNs to learn spatial representation and Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) to model the temporal relationship. Our multi-module RCNNs architecture is designed as an end-to-end deep framework with four modules: (i) timeseries module by 1D RCNNs which extracts spatio-temporal information of ECG time series; (ii) spectrogram module by 2D RCNNs which learns visual-temporal representation of ECG spectrogram ; (iii) metadata module which vectorizes age and gender information; (iv) fusion module which semantically fuses the information from threemore »above modules by a transformer encoder. Ten-fold cross validation was used to evaluate the approach on the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database (MIT-BIH) under different network configurations. The experimental results have proved that our proposed multi-module RCNNs with transformer encoder achieves the state-of-the-art with 99.14% F1 score and 98.29% accuracy.« less
  4. Flow-based generative models have recently become one of the most efficient approaches to model data generation. Indeed, they are constructed with a sequence of invertible and tractable transformations. Glow first introduced a simple type of generative flow using an invertible 1×1 convolution. However, the 1×1 convolution suffers from limited flexibility compared to the standard convolutions. In this paper, we propose a novel invertible n×n convolution approach that overcomes the limitations of the invertible 1×1 convolution. In addition, our proposed network is not only tractable and invertible but also uses fewer parameters than standard convolutions. The experiments on CIFAR-10, ImageNet and Celeb-HQ datasets, have shown that our invertible n×n convolution helps to improve the performance of generative models significantly.
  5. This work aimed to assist physicians by improving their speed and diagnostic accuracy when interpreting portable CXRs as well as monitoring the treatment process to see whether a patient is improving or deteriorating with treatment. These objectives are in especially high demand in the setting of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. With the recent progress in the development of artificial intelligence (AI), we introduce new deep learning frameworks to align and enhance the quality of portable CXRs to be more consistent, and to more closely match higher quality conventional CXRs. These enhanced portable CXRs can then help the doctors provide faster and more accurate diagnosis and treatment planning. The contributions of this work are four-fold. Firstly, a new database collection of subject-pair radiographs is introduced. For each subject, we collected a pair of samples from both portable and conventional machines. Secondly, a new deep learning approach is presented to align the subject-pairs dataset to obtain a pixel-pairs dataset. Thirdly, a new PairFlow approach is presented, an end-to-end invertible transfer deep learning method, to enhance the degraded quality of portable CXRs. Finally, the performance of the proposed system is evaluated by UAMS doctors in terms of both image quality and topological properties.more »This work was undertaken in collaboration with the Department of Radiology at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS) to enhance portable/mobile COVID-19 CXRs, to improve the speed and accuracy of portable CXR images and aid in urgent COVID-19 diagnosis, monitoring and treatment.« less
  6. Temporal action proposal generation is an essential and challenging task that aims at localizing temporal intervals containing human actions in untrimmed videos. Most of existing approaches are unable to follow the human cognitive process of understanding the video context due to lack of attention mechanism to express the concept of an action or an agent who performs the action or the interaction between the agent and the environment. Based on the action definition that a human, known as an agent, interacts with the environment and performs an action that affects the environment, we propose a contextual Agent-Environment Network. Our proposed contextual AEN involves (i) agent pathway, operating at a local level to tell about which humans/agents are acting and (ii) environment pathway operating at a global level to tell about how the agents interact with the environment. Comprehensive evaluations on 20-action THUMOS-14 and 200- action ActivityNet-1.3 datasets with different backbone networks, i.e C3D and SlowFast, show that our method robustly exhibits outperformance against state-of-the-art methods regardless of the employed backbone network.
  7. In recent years, deep neural networks have achieved state-of-the-art performance in a variety of recognition and segmentation tasks in medical imaging including brain tumor segmentation. We investigate that segmenting a brain tumor is facing to the imbalanced data problem where the number of pixels belonging to the background class (non tumor pixel) is much larger than the number of pixels belonging to the foreground class (tumor pixel). To address this problem, we propose a multitask network which is formed as a cascaded structure. Our model consists of two targets, i.e., (i) effectively differentiate the brain tumor regions and (ii) estimate the brain tumor mask. The first objective is performed by our proposed contextual brain tumor detection network, which plays a role of an attention gate and focuses on the region around brain tumor only while ignoring the far neighbor background which is less correlated to the tumor. Different from other existing object detection networks which process every pixel, our contextual brain tumor detection network only processes contextual regions around ground-truth instances and this strategy aims at producing meaningful regions proposals. The second objective is built upon a 3D atrous residual network and under an encode-decode network in order to effectivelymore »segment both large and small objects (brain tumor). Our 3D atrous residual network is designed with a skip connection to enables the gradient from the deep layers to be directly propagated to shallow layers, thus, features of different depths are preserved and used for refining each other. In order to incorporate larger contextual information from volume MRI data, our network utilizes the 3D atrous convolution with various kernel sizes, which enlarges the receptive field of filters. Our proposed network has been evaluated on various datasets including BRATS2015, BRATS2017 and BRATS2018 datasets with both validation set and testing set. Our performance has been benchmarked by both regionbased metrics and surface-based metrics. We also have conducted comparisons against state-of-the-art approaches« less