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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  2. Precise knowledge of position and timing information is critical to support elementary protocols such as entanglement swapping on quantum networks. While approaches have been devised to use quantum light for such metrology, they largely rely on time-of-flight (ToF) measurements with single-photon detectors and, therefore, are limited to picosecond-scale resolution owing to detector jitter. In this work, we demonstrate an approach to distributed sensing that leverages phase modulation to map changes in the spectral phase to coincidence probability, thereby overcoming the limits imposed by single-photon detection. By extracting information about the joint biphoton phase, we measure a generalized delay—the difference in signal–idler arrival, relative to local radio frequency (RF) phase modulation. For nonlocal ranging measurements, we achieve (2σ<#comment/>) precision of±<#comment/>0.04psand for measurements of the relative RF phase, (2σ<#comment/>) precision of±<#comment/>0.7∘<#comment/>. We complement this fine timing information with ToF data from single-photon time-tagging to demonstrate absolute measurement of time delay. By relying on off-the-shelf telecommunications equipment and standard quantum resources, this approach has the potential to reduce overhead in practical quantum networks.

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  3. Electronic analog to digital converters (ADCs) are running up against the well-known bit depth versus bandwidth trade off. Towards this end, radio frequency (RF) photonic-enhanced ADCs have been the subject of interest for some time. Optical frequency comb technology has been used as a workhorse underlying many of these architectures. Unfortunately, such designs must generally grapple with size, weight, and power (SWaP) concerns, as well as frequency ambiguity issues which threaten to obscure critical spectral information of detected RF signals. In this work, we address these concerns via an RF photonic downconverter with potential for easy integration and field deployment by leveraging a novel, to the best of our knowledge, hybrid microcomb/electro-optic comb design.

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  4. We demonstrate the use of a dual comb photonic system for downconversion and disambiguation of RF signals ranging from 4.3 GHz to 17.3 GHz. Our system has future potential for miniaturization, a key for deployment in real-world applications.

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  5. We demonstrate a Bell state analyzer that operates directly on frequency mismatch. Based on electro-optic modulators and Fourier-transform pulse shapers, our quantum frequency processor design implements interleaved Hadamard gates in discrete frequency modes. Experimental tests on entangled-photon inputs reveal fidelities of∼<#comment/>98%<#comment/>for discriminating between the|Ψ<#comment/>+⟩<#comment/>and|Ψ<#comment/>−<#comment/>⟩<#comment/>frequency-bin Bell states. Our approach resolves the tension between wavelength-multiplexed state transport and high-fidelity Bell state measurements, which typically require spectral indistinguishability.

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  6. Abstract

    Owing in large part to the advent of integrated biphoton frequency combs, recent years have witnessed increased attention to quantum information processing in the frequency domain for its inherent high dimensionality and entanglement compatible with fiber-optic networks. Quantum state tomography of such states, however, has required complex and precise engineering of active frequency mixing operations, which are difficult to scale. To address these limitations, we propose a solution that employs a pulse shaper and electro-optic phase modulator to perform random operations instead of mixing in a prescribed manner. We successfully verify the entanglement and reconstruct the full density matrix of biphoton frequency combs generated from an on-chip Si3N4microring resonator in up to an 8 × 8-dimensional two-qudit Hilbert space, the highest dimension to date for frequency bins. More generally, our employed Bayesian statistical model can be tailored to a variety of quantum systems with restricted measurement capabilities, forming an opportunistic tomographic framework that utilizes all available data in an optimal way.

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  7. We demonstrate optical frequency division of an octave-spanning large repetition rate microcomb to an electronically-detectable frequency in an all-silicon nitride dual microcomb platform. 
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