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  1. Abstract One of the most poorly understood aspects of low-mass star formation is how multiple-star systems are formed. Here we present the results of Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Band 6 observations toward a forming quadruple protostellar system, G206.93-16.61E2, in the Orion B molecular cloud. ALMA 1.3 mm continuum emission reveals four compact objects, of which two are Class I young stellar objects and the other two are likely in prestellar phase. The 1.3 mm continuum emission also shows three asymmetric ribbon-like structures that are connected to the four objects, with lengths ranging from ∼500 to ∼2200 au. By comparing our data with magnetohydrodynamic simulations, we suggest that these ribbons trace accretion flows and also function as gas bridges connecting the member protostars. Additionally, ALMA CO J = 2−1 line emission reveals a complicated molecular outflow associated with G206.93-16.61E2, with arc-like structures suggestive of an outflow cavity viewed pole-on. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  2. ABSTRACT

    Beginning with cosmological initial conditions at z = 100, we simulate the effects of magnetic fields on the formation of Population III stars and compare our results with the predictions of Paper I. We use gadget-2 to follow the evolution of the system while the field is weak. We introduce a new method for treating kinematic fields by tracking the evolution of the deformation tensor. The growth rate in this stage of the simulation is lower than expected for diffuse astrophysical plasmas, which have a very low resistivity (high magnetic Prandtl number); we attribute this to the large numerical resistivity in simulations, corresponding to a magnetic Prandtl number of order unity. When the magnetic field begins to be dynamically significant in the core of the minihalo at z = 27, we map it on to a uniform grid and follow the evolution in an adaptive mesh refinement, MHD simulation in orion2. The non-linear evolution of the field in the orion2 simulation violates flux-freezing and is consistent with the theory proposed by Xu & Lazarian. The fields approach equipartition with kinetic energy at densities ∼1010–1012 cm−3. When the same calculation is carried out in orion2 with no magnetic fields, several protostars form, ranging in mass from ∼1 to 30 M⊙; with magnetic fields, only a single ∼30 M⊙ protostar forms by the end of the simulation. Magnetic fields thus suppress the formation of low-mass Pop III stars, yielding a top-heavy Pop III initial mass function and contributing to the absence of observed Pop III stars.

     
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  3. null (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT We investigate the time evolution of dense cores identified in molecular cloud simulations using dendrograms, which are a common tool to identify hierarchical structure in simulations and observations of star formation. We develop an algorithm to link dendrogram structures through time using the three-dimensional density field from magnetohydrodynamical simulations, thus creating histories for all dense cores in the domain. We find that the population-wide distributions of core properties are relatively invariant in time, and quantities like the core mass function match with observations. Despite this consistency, an individual core may undergo large (>40 per cent), stochastic variations due to the redefinition of the dendrogram structure between time-steps. This variation occurs independent of environment and stellar content. We identify a population of short-lived (<200 kyr) overdensities masquerading as dense cores that may comprise $\sim\!20$ per cent of any time snapshot. Finally, we note the importance of considering the full history of cores when interpreting the origin of the initial mass function; we find that, especially for systems containing multiple stars, the core mass defined by a dendrogram leaf in a snapshot is typically less than the final system stellar mass. This work reinforces that there is no time-stable density contour that defines a star-forming core. The dendrogram itself can induce significant structure variation between time-steps due to small changes in the density field. Thus, one must use caution when comparing dendrograms of regions with different ages or environment properties because differences in dendrogram structure may not come solely from the physical evolution of dense cores. 
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