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  1. Abstract Jets can facilitate the mass accretion onto the protostars in star formation. They are believed to be launched from accretion disks around the protostars by magnetocentrifugal force, as supported by the detections of rotation and magnetic fields in some of them. Here we report a radial flow of the textbook-case protostellar jet HH 212 at the base to further support this jet-launching scenario. This radial flow validates a central prediction of the magnetocentrifugal theory of jet formation and collimation, namely, the jet is the densest part of a wide-angle wind that flows radially outward at distances far from the (small, sub-au) launching region. Additional evidence for the radially flowing wide-angle component comes from its ability to reproduce the structure and kinematics of the shells detected around the HH 212 jet. This component, which can transport material from the inner to outer disk, could account for the chondrules and Ca–Al-rich inclusions detected in the solar system at large distances.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023
  2. ABSTRACT (Sub)millimetre dust opacities are required for converting the observable dust continuum emission to the mass, but their values have long been uncertain, especially in discs around young stellar objects. We propose a method to constrain the opacity κν in edge-on discs from a characteristic optical depth τ0,ν, the density ρ0, and radius R0 at the disc outer edge through κν = τ0,ν/(ρ0R0), where τ0,ν is inferred from the shape of the observed flux along the major axis, ρ0 from gravitational stability considerations, and R0 from direct imaging. We applied the 1D semi-analytical model to the embedded, Class 0, HH 212 disc, which has high-resolution data in Atacama Large Millimetre/submillimetre Array (ALMA) bands 9, 7, 6, and 3 and Very Large Array Ka band (λ = 0.43, 0.85, 1.3, 2.9, and 9.1 mm). The modelling is extended to 2D through RADMC-3D radiative transfer calculations. We find a dust opacity of κν ≈ 1.9 × 10−2, 1.3 × 10−2, and 4.9 × 10−3 cm2 g−1 of gas and dust for ALMA bands 7, 6, and 3, respectively, with uncertainties dependent on the adopted stellar mass. The inferred opacities lend support to the widely used prescription κλ = 2.3 × 10−2(1.3mm/λ) cm2 g−1 . We inferred a temperature of ∼45 K at the disc outer edge that increasesmore »radially inwards. It is well above the sublimation temperatures of ices such as CO and N2, which supports the notion that the disc chemistry cannot be completely inherited from the protostellar envelope.« less
  3. ABSTRACT Polarized continuum emission from aligned grains in discs around young stellar objects can be used to probe the magnetic field, radiation anisotropy, or drift between dust and gas, depending on whether the non-spherical grains are aligned magnetically, radiatively, or mechanically. We show that it can also be used to probe another key disc property – the temperature gradient – along sightlines that are optically thick, independent of the grain alignment mechanism. We first illustrate the technique analytically using a simple 1D slab model, which yields an approximate formula that relates the polarization fraction to the temperature gradient with respect to the optical depth τ at the τ = 1 surface. The formula is then validated using models of stellar irradiated discs with and without accretion heating. The promises and challenges of the technique are illustrated with a number of Class 0 and I discs with ALMA dust polarization data, including NGC 1333 IRAS4A1, IRAS 16293B, BHB 07-11, L1527, HH 212, and HH 111. We find, in particular, that the sightlines passing through the near-side of a highly inclined disc trace different temperature gradient directions than those through the far-side, which can lead to a polarization orientation on the near-side thatmore »is orthogonal to that on the far-side, and that the HH 111 disc may be such a case. Our technique for probing the disc temperature gradient through dust polarization can complement other methods, particularly those using molecular lines.« less