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  1. Abstract

    MXenes constitute a rapidly growing family of 2D materials that are promising for optoelectronic applications because of numerous attractive properties, including high electrical conductivity. However, the most widely used titanium carbide (Ti3C2Tx) MXene transparent conductive electrode exhibits insufficient environmental stability and work function (WF), which impede practical applications Ti3C2Txelectrodes in solution‐processed optoelectronics. Herein, Ti3C2TxMXene film with a compact structure and a perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) barrier layer is presented as a promising electrode for organic light‐emitting diodes (OLEDs). The electrode shows excellent environmental stability, highWFof 5.84 eV, and low sheet resistanceRSof 97.4 Ω sq−1. The compact Ti3C2Txstructure after thermal annealing resists intercalation of moisture and environmental contaminants. In addition, the PFSA surface modification passivates interflake defects and modulates theWF. Thus, changes in theWFandRSare negligible even after 22 days of exposure to ambient air. The Ti3C2TxMXene is applied for large‐area, 10 × 10 passive matrix flexible OLEDs on substrates measuring 6 × 6 cm. This work provides a simple but efficient strategy to overcome both the limited environmental stability and lowWFof MXene electrodes for solution‐processable optoelectronics.

     
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  3. Abstract

    Above‐bandgap femtosecond optical excitation of a ferroelectric/dielectric BaTiO3/CaTiO3superlattice leads to structural responses that are a consequence of the screening of the strong electrostatic coupling between the component layers. Time‐resolved X‐ray free‐electron laser diffraction shows that the structural response to optical excitation includes a net lattice expansion of the superlattice consistent with depolarization‐field screening driven by the photoexcited charge carriers. The depolarization‐field‐screening‐driven expansion is separate from a photoacoustic pulse launched from the bottom electrode on which the superlattice is epitaxially grown. The distribution of diffracted intensity of superlattice X‐ray reflections indicates that the depolarization‐field‐screening‐induced strain includes a photoinduced expansion in the ferroelectric BaTiO3and a contraction in CaTiO3. The magnitude of expansion in BaTiO3layers is larger than the contraction in CaTiO3. The difference in the magnitude of depolarization‐field‐screening‐driven strain in the BaTiO3and CaTiO3components can arise from the contribution of the oxygen octahedral rotation patterns at the BaTiO3/CaTiO3interfaces to the polarization of CaTiO3. The depolarization‐field‐screening‐driven polarization reduction in the CaTiO3layers points to a new direction for the manipulation of polarization in the component layers of a strongly coupled ferroelectric/dielectric superlattice.

     
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  4. Abstract

    High‐sensitivity chemical imaging offers a window to decipher the molecular orchestra inside a living system. Based on vibrational fingerprint signatures, coherent Raman scattering microscopy provides a label‐free approach to map biomolecules and drug molecules inside a cell. Yet, by near‐infrared (NIR) pulse excitation, the sensitivity is limited to millimolar concentration for endogenous biomolecules. Here, the imaging sensitivity of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) is significantly boosted for retinoid molecules to 34 micromolar via electronic preresonance in the visible wavelength regime. Retinoids play critical roles in development, immunity, stem cell differentiation, and lipid metabolism. By visible preresonance SRS (VP‐SRS) imaging, retinoid distribution in single embryonic neurons and mouse brain tissues is mapped, retinoid storage in chemoresistant pancreatic and ovarian cancers is revealed, and retinoids stored in protein network and lipid droplets ofCaenorahbditis elegansare identified. These results demonstrate VP‐SRS microscopy as an ultrasensitive label‐free chemical imaging tool and collectively open new opportunities of understanding the function of retinoids in biological systems.

     
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  5. Abstract

    Internet of Things (IoT) is driving the development of new generation of sensors, communication components, and power sources. Ideally, IoT sensors and communication components are expected to be powered by sustainable energy source freely available in the environment. Here, a breakthrough in this direction is provided by demonstrating high output power energy harvesting from very low amplitude stray magnetic fields, which exist everywhere, through magnetoelectric (ME) coupled magneto‐mechano‐electric (MME) energy conversion. ME coupled MME harvester comprised of multiple layers of amorphous magnetostrictive material, piezoelectric macrofiber composite, and magnetic tip mass, interacts with an external magnetic field to generate electrical energy. Comprehensive experimental investigation and a theoretical model reveal that both the magnetic torque generated through magnetic loading and amplification of magneto‐mechanical vibration by ME coupling contributes toward the generation of high electrical power from the stray magnetic field around power cables of common home appliances. The generated electrical power from the harvester is sufficient for operating microsensors (gyro, temperature, and humidity sensing) and wireless data transmission systems. These results will facilitate the deployment of IoT devices in emerging intelligent infrastructures.

     
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