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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2023
  2. Abstract We present a background model for dark matter searches using an array of NaI(Tl) crystals in the COSINE-100 experiment that is located in the Yangyang underground laboratory. The model includes background contributions from both internal and external sources, including cosmogenic radionuclides and surface $$^{210}$$ 210 Pb contamination. To build the model in the low energy region, with a threshold of 1 keV, we used a depth profile of $$^{210}$$ 210 Pb contamination in the surface of the NaI(Tl) crystals determined in a comparison between measured and simulated spectra. We also considered the effect of the energy scale errors propagated frommore »the statistical uncertainties and the nonlinear detector response at low energies. The 1.7 years COSINE-100 data taken between October 21, 2016 and July 18, 2018 were used for this analysis. Our Monte Carlo simulation provides a non-Gaussian peak around 50 keV originating from beta decays of bulk $$^{210}$$ 210 Pb in a good agreement with the measured background. This model estimates that the activities of bulk $$^{210}$$ 210 Pb and $$^{3}$$ 3 H are dominating the background rate that amounts to an average level of $$2.85\pm 0.15$$ 2.85 ± 0.15  counts/day/keV/kg in the energy region of (1–6) keV, using COSINE-100 data with a total exposure of 97.7 kg $$\cdot $$ · years.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2022
  3. Abstract

    We report the identification of metastable isomeric states of$$^{228}$$228Ac at 6.28 keV, 6.67 keV and 20.19 keV, with lifetimes of an order of 100 ns. These states are produced by the$$\beta $$β-decay of$$^{228}$$228Ra, a component of the$$^{232}$$232Th decay chain, with$$\beta $$βQ-values of 39.52 keV, 39.13 keV and 25.61 keV, respectively. Due to the low Q-value of$$^{228}$$228Ra as well as the relative abundance of$$^{232}$$232Th and their progeny in low background experiments, these observations potentially impact the low-energy background modeling of dark matter search experiments.

  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2022
  5. A bstract We present a search for the dark photon A ′ in the B 0 → A ′ A ′ decays, where A ′ subsequently decays to e + e − , μ + μ − , and π + π − . The search is performed by analyzing 772 × 10 6 $$ B\overline{B} $$ B B ¯ events collected by the Belle detector at the KEKB e + e − energy-asymmetric collider at the ϒ(4 S ) resonance. No signal is found in the dark photon mass range 0 . 01 GeV /c 2 ≤ m Amore »′ ≤ 2 . 62 GeV /c 2 , and we set upper limits of the branching fraction of B 0 → A ′ A ′ at the 90% confidence level. The products of branching fractions, $$ \mathrm{\mathcal{B}}\left({B}^0\to A^{\prime }A^{\prime}\right)\times \mathrm{\mathcal{B}}{\left(A\prime \to {e}^{+}{e}^{-}\right)}^2 $$ ℬ B 0 → A ′ A ′ × ℬ A ′ → e + e − 2 and $$ \mathrm{\mathcal{B}}\left({B}^0\to A^{\prime }A^{\prime}\right)\times \mathrm{\mathcal{B}}{\left(A\prime \to {\mu}^{+}{\mu}^{-}\right)}^2 $$ ℬ B 0 → A ′ A ′ × ℬ A ′ → μ + μ − 2 , have limits of the order of 10 − 8 depending on the A ′ mass. Furthermore, considering A ′ decay rate to each pair of charged particles, the upper limits of $$ \mathrm{\mathcal{B}}\left({B}^0\to A^{\prime }A^{\prime}\right) $$ ℬ B 0 → A ′ A ′ are of the order of 10 − 8 –10 − 5 . From the upper limits of $$ \mathrm{\mathcal{B}}\left({B}^0\to A^{\prime }A^{\prime}\right) $$ ℬ B 0 → A ′ A ′ , we obtain the Higgs portal coupling for each assumed dark photon and dark Higgs mass. The Higgs portal couplings are of the order of 10 − 2 –10 − 1 at $$ {m}_{h\prime}\simeq {m}_{B^0} $$ m h ′ ≃ m B 0 ± 40 MeV /c 2 and 10 − 1 –1 at $$ {m}_{h\prime}\simeq {m}_{B^0} $$ m h ′ ≃ m B 0 ± 3 GeV /c 2 .« less