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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2022
  2. We report on the use of extreme ultraviolet (XUV, 30.3 nm) radiation from the Free-electron LASer in Hamburg (FLASH) and visible (Vis, 405 nm) photons from an optical laser to investigate the relaxation and fragmentation dynamics of fluorene ions. The ultrashort laser pulses allow to resolve the molecular processes occurring on the femtosecond timescales. Fluorene is a prototypical small polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). Through their infrared emission signature, PAHs have been shown to be ubiquitous in the universe, and they are assumed to play an important role in the chemistry of the interstellar medium. Our experiments track the ionization and dissociative ionization products of fluorene through time-of-flight mass spectrometry and velocity-map imaging. Multiple processes involved in the formation of each of the fragment ions are disentangled through analysis of the ion images. The relaxation lifetimes of the excited fluorene monocation and dication obtained through the fragment formation channels are reported to be in the range of a few tens of femtoseconds to a few picoseconds.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 12, 2023
  3. Abstract Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) play an important role in interstellar chemistry and are subject to high energy photons that can induce excitation, ionization, and fragmentation. Previous studies have demonstrated electronic relaxation of parent PAH monocations over 10–100 femtoseconds as a result of beyond-Born-Oppenheimer coupling between the electronic and nuclear dynamics. Here, we investigate three PAH molecules: fluorene, phenanthrene, and pyrene, using ultrafast XUV and IR laser pulses. Simultaneous measurements of the ion yields, ion momenta, and electron momenta as a function of laser pulse delay allow a detailed insight into the various molecular processes. We report relaxation times for the electronically excited PAH * , PAH +* and PAH 2+* states, and show the time-dependent conversion between fragmentation pathways. Additionally, using recoil-frame covariance analysis between ion images, we demonstrate that the dissociation of the PAH 2+ ions favors reaction pathways involving two-body breakup and/or loss of neutral fragments totaling an even number of carbon atoms.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  5. Abstract We present a measurement of the high-energy astrophysical muon–neutrino flux with the IceCube Neutrino Observatory. The measurement uses a high-purity selection of 650k neutrino-induced muon tracks from the northern celestial hemisphere, corresponding to 9.5 yr of experimental data. With respect to previous publications, the measurement is improved by the increased size of the event sample and the extended model testing beyond simple power-law hypotheses. An updated treatment of systematic uncertainties and atmospheric background fluxes has been implemented based on recent models. The best-fit single power-law parameterization for the astrophysical energy spectrum results in a normalization of ϕ @ 100 TeV ν μ + ν ¯ μ = 1.44 − 0.26 + 0.25 × 10 − 18 GeV − 1 cm − 2 s − 1 sr − 1 and a spectral index γ SPL = 2.37 − 0.09 + 0.09 , constrained in the energy range from 15 TeV to 5 PeV. The model tests include a single power law with a spectral cutoff at high energies, a log-parabola model, several source-class-specific flux predictions from the literature, and a model-independent spectral unfolding. The data are consistent with a single power-law hypothesis, however, spectra with softening above one PeV aremore »statistically more favorable at a two-sigma level.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023
  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023
  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2023
  8. Abstract Ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) have infrared luminosities L IR ≥ 10 12 L ⊙ , making them the most luminous objects in the infrared sky. These dusty objects are generally powered by starbursts with star formation rates that exceed 100 M ⊙ yr −1 , possibly combined with a contribution from an active galactic nucleus. Such environments make ULIRGs plausible sources of astrophysical high-energy neutrinos, which can be observed by the IceCube Neutrino Observatory at the South Pole. We present a stacking search for high-energy neutrinos from a representative sample of 75 ULIRGs with redshift z ≤ 0.13 using 7.5 yr of IceCube data. The results are consistent with a background-only observation, yielding upper limits on the neutrino flux from these 75 ULIRGs. For an unbroken E −2.5 power-law spectrum, we report an upper limit on the stacked flux Φ ν μ + ν ¯ μ 90 % = 3.24 × 10 − 14 TeV − 1 cm − 2 s − 1 ( E / 10 TeV ) − 2.5 at 90% confidence level. In addition, we constrain the contribution of the ULIRG source population to the observed diffuse astrophysical neutrino flux as well as model predictions.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2023