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  1. This paper presents a wireless and stand-alone subminiature propeller based on acoustic propulsion for the underwater robotic applications. The acoustic propulsion is generated by a MEMS-based self-focusing acoustic transducer (SFAT), fabricated on 1-mm-thick lead zirconate titanate (PZT) substrate, and operated at its thickness mode resonant frequency of 2.32 MHz. A 100F lithium-ion capacitor (LIC) is used as a power source due to its high energy and power densities. A drive electronic circuit is implemented on a flexible printed circuit board (PCB) and delivers 30Vpp sinusoidal signal to the acoustic propeller. The completed system is 18 x 18 x 38 mm3more »in volume and weighs 12.56 grams, resulting in a mass density of 1.020 g/cm3. The acoustic propulsion generated by the acoustic propeller is measured to be 18.68μN with the electrical power of 358.7mW consumed by the propeller. Both vertical and horizontal propulsions are demonstrated successfully in sodium polytungstate (SPT) solution.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 5, 2023
  2. The electrochemical doping/dedoping kinetics, and the organic electrochemical transistor (OECT) performance of a series of polythiophene homopolymers with ethylene glycol units in their side chains using both kosmotropic and chaotropic anion solutions were studied. We compare their performance to a reference polymer, the polythiophene derivative with diethylene glycol side chains, poly(3-{[2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethoxy]methyl}thiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3MEEMT). We find larger OECT material figure of merit, μC *, where μ is the carrier mobility and C * is the volumetric capacitance, and faster doping kinetics with more oxygen atoms on the side chains, and if the oxygen atom is farther from the polythiophene backbone. Replacing themore »oxygen atom close to the polythiophene backbone with an alkyl unit increases the film π-stacking crystallinity (higher electronic conductivity in the undoped film) but sacrifices the available doping sites (lower volumetric capacitance C * in OECT). We show that this variation in C * is the dominant factor in changing the μC * product for this family of polymers. With more oxygen atoms on the side chain, or with the oxygen atom farther from the polymer backbone, we observe both more passive swelling and higher C *. In addition, we show that, compared to the doping speed, the dedoping speed, as measured via spectroelectrochemistry, is both generally faster and less dependent on ion species or side chain oxygen content. Last, through OECT, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and spectroelectrochemistry measurements, we show that the chaotropic anion PF 6 − facilitates higher doping levels, faster doping kinetics, and lower doping thresholds compared to the kosmotropic anion Cl − , although the exact differences depend on the polymer side chains. Our results highlight the importance of balancing μ and C * when designing molecular structures for OECT active layers.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 17, 2023
  3. When a group member commits wrongdoing, people sometimes assign responsibility and blame not only to the wrongdoer but also to other members of the same group. We examined such assignment of collective responsibility in the context of exploitation of one family by another. Participants were recruited from the United States and South Korea, which are known to vary in cultural norms and endorsement of collectivistic values. Participants in both countries rated the degree to which an agent (grandson) should be held responsible for his grandfather’s exploitation of a victimized family, while varying the closeness of familial connection. Participants’ responsibility judgmentsmore »showed sensitivity to whether the grandson received financial benefit from the wrongdoer and to the perceived closeness between the grandson and the wrongdoer. Korean participants imposed greater responsibility on the agent than did American participants. Implications for understanding the influence of social norms on moral judgments are discussed.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  6. Abstract Background Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) is the most widely used probiotic, but the mechanisms underlying its beneficial effects remain unresolved. Previous studies typically inoculated LGG in hosts with established gut microbiota, limiting the understanding of specific impacts of LGG on host due to numerous interactions among LGG, commensal microbes, and the host. There has been a scarcity of studies that used gnotobiotic animals to elucidate LGG-host interaction, in particular for gaining specific insights about how it modifies the metabolome. To evaluate whether LGG affects the metabolite output of pathobionts, we inoculated with LGG gnotobiotic mice containing Propionibacterium acnes, Turicibactermore »sanguinis, and Staphylococcus aureus (PTS). Results 16S rRNA sequencing of fecal samples by Ion Torrent and MinION platforms showed colonization of germ-free mice by PTS or by PTS plus LGG (LTS). Although the body weights and feeding rates of mice remained similar between PTS and LTS groups, co-associating LGG with PTS led to a pronounced reduction in abundance of P. acnes in the gut. Addition of LGG or its secretome inhibited P. acnes growth in culture. After optimizing procedures for fecal metabolite extraction and metabolomic liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, unsupervised and supervised multivariate analyses revealed a distinct separation among fecal metabolites of PTS, LTS, and germ-free groups. Variables-important-in-projection scores showed that LGG colonization robustly diminished guanine, ornitihine, and sorbitol while significantly elevating acetylated amino acids, ribitol, indolelactic acid, and histamine. In addition, carnitine, betaine, and glutamate increased while thymidine, quinic acid and biotin were reduced in both PTS and LTS groups. Furthermore, LGG association reduced intestinal mucosal expression levels of inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1α, IL-1β and TNF-α. Conclusions LGG co-association had a negative impact on colonization of P. acnes , and markedly altered the metabolic output and inflammatory response elicited by pathobionts.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
  7. Ultrafast resonant soft x-ray scattering is used to monitor the dynamics of the charge density wave order in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6+x .
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 20, 2023
  8. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2022
  9. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 16, 2022
  10. We report on the use of extreme ultraviolet (XUV, 30.3 nm) radiation from the Free-electron LASer in Hamburg (FLASH) and visible (Vis, 405 nm) photons from an optical laser to investigate the relaxation and fragmentation dynamics of fluorene ions. The ultrashort laser pulses allow to resolve the molecular processes occurring on the femtosecond timescales. Fluorene is a prototypical small polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). Through their infrared emission signature, PAHs have been shown to be ubiquitous in the universe, and they are assumed to play an important role in the chemistry of the interstellar medium. Our experiments track the ionization and dissociative ionizationmore »products of fluorene through time-of-flight mass spectrometry and velocity-map imaging. Multiple processes involved in the formation of each of the fragment ions are disentangled through analysis of the ion images. The relaxation lifetimes of the excited fluorene monocation and dication obtained through the fragment formation channels are reported to be in the range of a few tens of femtoseconds to a few picoseconds.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 12, 2023