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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2025
  2. Teachable object recognizers provide a solution for a very practical need for blind people – instance level object recognition. They assume one can visually inspect the photos they provide for training, a critical and inaccessible step for those who are blind. In this work, we engineer data descriptors that address this challenge. They indicate in real time whether the object in the photo is cropped or too small, a hand is included, the photos is blurred, and how much photos vary from each other. Our descriptors are built into open source testbed iOS app, called MYCam. In a remote user study in (N = 12) blind participants’ homes, we show how descriptors, even when error-prone, support experimentation and have a positive impact in the quality of training set that can translate to model performance though this gain is not uniform. Participants found the app simple to use indicating that they could effectively train it and that the descriptors were useful. However, many found the training being tedious, opening discussions around the need for balance between information, time, and cognitive load. 
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  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  4. Abstract

    The heaviest elements in the universe are synthesized through rapid neutron capture (r-process) in extremely neutron-rich outflows. Neutron star mergers were established as an importantr-process source through the multimessenger observation of GW170817. Collapsars were also proposed as a potentially major source of heavy elements; however, this is difficult to probe through optical observations due to contamination by other emission mechanisms. Here we present observational constraints onr-process nucleosynthesis by collapsars based on radio follow-up observations of nearby long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). We make the hypothesis that late-time radio emission arises from the collapsar wind ejecta responsible for forgingr-process elements, and consider the constraints that can be set on this scenario using radio observations of a sample of Swift/Burst Alert Telescope GRBs located within 2 Gpc. No radio counterpart was identified in excess of the radio afterglow of the GRBs in our sample. This gives the strictest limit to the collapsarr-process contribution of ≲0.2Mfor GRB 060505 and GRB 05826, under the models we considered. Our results additionally constrain energy injection by a long-lived neutron star remnant in some of the considered GRBs. While our results are in tension with collapsars being the majority ofr-process production sites, the ejecta mass and velocity profile of collapsar winds, and the emission parameters, are not yet well modeled. As such, our results are currently subject to large uncertainties, but further theoretical work could greatly improve them.

     
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