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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2023
  2. Abstract We present a background model for dark matter searches using an array of NaI(Tl) crystals in the COSINE-100 experiment that is located in the Yangyang underground laboratory. The model includes background contributions from both internal and external sources, including cosmogenic radionuclides and surface $$^{210}$$ 210 Pb contamination. To build the model in the low energy region, with a threshold of 1 keV, we used a depth profile of $$^{210}$$ 210 Pb contamination in the surface of the NaI(Tl) crystals determined in a comparison between measured and simulated spectra. We also considered the effect of the energy scale errors propagated frommore »the statistical uncertainties and the nonlinear detector response at low energies. The 1.7 years COSINE-100 data taken between October 21, 2016 and July 18, 2018 were used for this analysis. Our Monte Carlo simulation provides a non-Gaussian peak around 50 keV originating from beta decays of bulk $$^{210}$$ 210 Pb in a good agreement with the measured background. This model estimates that the activities of bulk $$^{210}$$ 210 Pb and $$^{3}$$ 3 H are dominating the background rate that amounts to an average level of $$2.85\pm 0.15$$ 2.85 ± 0.15  counts/day/keV/kg in the energy region of (1–6) keV, using COSINE-100 data with a total exposure of 97.7 kg $$\cdot $$ · years.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2022
  3. Abstract

    We report the identification of metastable isomeric states of$$^{228}$$228Ac at 6.28 keV, 6.67 keV and 20.19 keV, with lifetimes of an order of 100 ns. These states are produced by the$$\beta $$β-decay of$$^{228}$$228Ra, a component of the$$^{232}$$232Th decay chain, with$$\beta $$βQ-values of 39.52 keV, 39.13 keV and 25.61 keV, respectively. Due to the low Q-value of$$^{228}$$228Ra as well as the relative abundance of$$^{232}$$232Th and their progeny in low background experiments, these observations potentially impact the low-energy background modeling of dark matter search experiments.

  4. Body-machine interfaces, i.e. interfaces that rely on body movements to control external assistive devices, have been proposed as a safe and robust means of achieving movement and mobility; however, how children learn these novel interfaces is poorly understood. Here we characterized the learning of a body-machine interface in young unimpaired adults, two groups of typically developing children (9-year and 12-year olds), and one child with congenital limb deficiency. Participants had to control the end-effector of a robot arm in 2D using movements of the shoulder and torso. Results showed a striking effect of age - children had much greater difficultymore »in learning the task compared to adults, with a majority of the 9-year old group unable to even complete the task. The 12-year olds also showed poorer task performance compared to adults (as measured by longer movement times and greater path lengths), which were associated with less effective search strategies. The child with congenital limb deficiency showed superior task performance compared to age-matched children, but had qualitatively distinct coordination strategies from the adults. Taken together, these results imply that children have difficulty learning non-intuitive interfaces and that the design of body-machine interfaces should account for these differences in pediatric populations.« less