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  1. In order to explore the consequences of spin–orbit coupling on spin–phonon interactions in a set of chemically similar mixed metal oxides, we measured the infrared vibrational properties of Co4B2O9 (B = Nb, Ta) as a function of temperature and compared our findings with lattice dynamics calculations and several different models of spin–phonon coupling. Frequency vs temperature trends for the Co2+ shearing mode near 150 cm−1 reveal significant shifts across the magnetic ordering temperature that are especially large in relative terms. Bringing these results together and accounting for noncollinearity, we obtain spin–phonon coupling constants of −3.4 and −4.3 cm−1 for Co4Nb2O9 and the Ta analog, respectively. Analysis reveals that these coupling constants are derived from interlayer (rather than intralayer) exchange interactions and that the interlayer interactions contain competing antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic contributions. At the same time, beyond-Heisenberg terms are minimized due to fortuitous symmetry considerations, different from most other 4d- and 5d-containing oxides. Comparison with other contemporary oxides shows that spin–phonon coupling in this family of materials is among the strongest ever reported, suggesting an origin for magnetoelectric coupling. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2024
  2. Abstract

    On 10 and 11 October 2019, high‐power radar observations were performed simultaneously for 8 hours at Resolute Bay Incoherent Scatter North (RISR‐N), Jicamarca Radio Observatory (JRO), and Millstone Hill Observatory (MHO). The concurrent observations eliminate diurnal, seasonal, and space weather biases in the meteor head echo populations and elucidate relative sensitivities of each facility and configuration. Each facility observed thousands of head echoes, with JRO observing tens of thousands. An inter‐pulse phase matching technique employs Doppler shifts to determine head echo range rates (velocity component along radar beam) with order‐of‐magnitude greater accuracy versus measuring the Doppler shift at individual pulses, and this technique yields accurate range rates and decelerations for a subset of the head echo population at each facility. Because RISR‐N is at high latitude and points away from the ecliptic plane, it does not observe head echoes with range rates faster than 55 km/s, although its head echo population demonstrates a bias toward larger and faster head echoes. At JRO near the equator, a larger spread of range rates is observed. MHO observes a large spread of range rates at mid‐latitude despite its comparable frequency to RISR‐N, but this occurs because its beam was pointed at a 45° elevation angle unlike RISR‐N and JRO which were pointed near‐zenith. A trend of greater decelerations at lower altitudes is observed at RISR‐N and JRO, with decelerations of up to 60 km/s2, but high‐deceleration events of up to 1,000 km/s2previously observed in head echo studies are not observed.

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