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  1. Abstract Augmented reality (AR) devices, as smart glasses, enable users to see both the real world and virtual images simultaneously, contributing to an immersive experience in interactions and visualization. Recently, to reduce the size and weight of smart glasses, waveguides incorporating holographic optical elements in the form of advanced grating structures have been utilized to provide light-weight solutions instead of bulky helmet-type headsets. However current waveguide displays often have limited display resolution, efficiency and field-of-view, with complex multi-step fabrication processes of lower yield. In addition, current AR displays often have vergence-accommodation conflict in the augmented and virtual images, resulting in focusing-visual fatigue and eye strain. Here we report metasurface optical elements designed and experimentally implemented as a platform solution to overcome these limitations. Through careful dispersion control in the excited propagation and diffraction modes, we design and implement our high-resolution full-color prototype, via the combination of analytical–numerical simulations, nanofabrication and device measurements. With the metasurface control of the light propagation, our prototype device achieves a 1080-pixel resolution, a field-of-view more than 40°, an overall input–output efficiency more than 1%, and addresses the vergence-accommodation conflict through our focal-free implementation. Furthermore, our AR waveguide is achieved in a single metasurface-waveguide layer, aidingmore »the scalability and process yield control.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023