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  1. Abstract In this paper, we review scientific opportunities and challenges related to detection and reconstruction of low-energy (less than 100 MeV) signatures in liquid argon time-projection chamber (LArTPC) neutrino detectors. LArTPC neutrino detectors designed for performing precise long-baseline oscillation measurements with GeV-scale accelerator neutrino beams also have unique sensitivity to a range of physics and astrophysics signatures via detection of event features at and below the few tens of MeV range. In addition, low-energy signatures are an integral part of GeV-scale accelerator neutrino interaction final-states, and their reconstruction can enhance the oscillation physics sensitivities of LArTPC experiments. New physics signals from accelerator and natural sources also generate diverse signatures in the low-energy range, and reconstruction of these signatures can increase the breadth of Beyond the Standard Model scenarios accessible in LArTPC-based searches. A variety of experimental and theory-related challenges remain to realizing this full range of potential benefits. Neutrino interaction cross-sections and other nuclear physics processes in argon relevant to sub-hundred-MeV LArTPC signatures are poorly understood, and improved theory and experimental measurements are needed; pion decay-at-rest sources and charged particle and neutron test beams are ideal facilities for improving this understanding. There are specific calibration needs in the low-energy range, as well as specific needs for control and understanding of radiological and cosmogenic backgrounds. Low-energy signatures, whether steady-state or part of a supernova burst or larger GeV-scale event topology, have specific triggering, DAQ and reconstruction requirements that must be addressed outside the scope of conventional GeV-scale data collection and analysis pathways. Novel concepts for future LArTPC technology that enhance low-energy capabilities should also be explored to help address these challenges. 
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  2. A bstract The NA62 experiment at CERN targets the measurement of the ultra-rare $$ {K}^{+}\to {\pi}^{+}\nu \overline{\nu} $$ K + → π + ν ν ¯ decay, and carries out a broad physics programme that includes probes for symmetry violations and searches for exotic particles. Data were collected in 2016–2018 using a multi-level trigger system, which is described highlighting performance studies based on 2018 data. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2024
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2024
  4. A bstract A sample of 2 . 8 × 10 4 K + → π + μ + μ − candidates with negligible background was collected by the NA62 experiment at the CERN SPS in 2017–2018. The model-independent branching fraction is measured to be (9 . 15 ± 0 . 08) × 10 − 8 , a factor three more precise than previous measurements. The decay form factor is presented as a function of the squared dimuon mass. A measurement of the form factor parameters and their uncertainties is performed using a description based on Chiral Perturbation Theory at $$ \mathcal{O} $$ O ( p 6 ). 
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  5. A bstract The NA62 experiment reports the branching ratio measurement $$ \mathrm{BR}\left({K}^{+}\to {\pi}^{+}\nu \overline{\nu}\right)=\left({10.6}_{-3.4}^{+4.0}\left|{}_{\mathrm{stat}}\right.\pm {0.9}_{\mathrm{syst}}\right)\times {10}^{-11} $$ BR K + → π + ν ν ¯ = 10.6 − 3.4 + 4.0 stat ± 0.9 syst × 10 − 11 at 68% CL, based on the observation of 20 signal candidates with an expected background of 7.0 events from the total data sample collected at the CERN SPS during 2016–2018. This provides evidence for the very rare K + → $$ {\pi}^{+}\nu \overline{\nu} $$ π + ν ν ¯ decay, observed with a significance of 3.4 σ . The experiment achieves a single event sensitivity of (0 . 839 ± 0 . 054) × 10 − 11 , corresponding to 10.0 events assuming the Standard Model branching ratio of (8 . 4 ± 1 . 0) × 10 − 11 . This measurement is also used to set limits on BR( K + → π + X ), where X is a scalar or pseudo-scalar particle. Details are given of the analysis of the 2018 data sample, which corresponds to about 80% of the total data sample. 
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  6. null (Ed.)
    A bstract A search for the K + → π + X decay, where X is a long-lived feebly interacting particle, is performed through an interpretation of the K + → $$ {\pi}^{+}\nu \overline{\nu} $$ π + ν ν ¯ analysis of data collected in 2017 by the NA62 experiment at CERN. Two ranges of X masses, 0–110 MeV /c 2 and 154–260 MeV /c 2 , and lifetimes above 100 ps are considered. The limits set on the branching ratio, BR( K + → π + X ), are competitive with previously reported searches in the first mass range, and improve on current limits in the second mass range by more than an order of magnitude. 
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  7. null (Ed.)
    A bstract The NA62 experiment at the CERN SPS reports a study of a sample of 4 × 10 9 tagged π 0 mesons from K + → π + π 0 ( γ ), searching for the decay of the π 0 to invisible particles. No signal is observed in excess of the expected background fluctuations. An upper limit of 4 . 4 × 10 − 9 is set on the branching ratio at 90% confidence level, improving on previous results by a factor of 60. This result can also be interpreted as a model- independent upper limit on the branching ratio for the decay K + → π + X , where X is a particle escaping detection with mass in the range 0.110–0.155 GeV /c 2 and rest lifetime greater than 100 ps. Model-dependent upper limits are obtained assuming X to be an axion-like particle with dominant fermion couplings or a dark scalar mixing with the Standard Model Higgs boson. 
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