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Enzyme encapsulation in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs)/covalent-organic frameworks (COFs) provides advancement in biocatalysis, yet the structural basis underlying the catalytic performance is challenging to probe. Here, we present an effective protocol to determine the orientation and dynamics of enzymes in MOFs/COFs using site-directed spin labeling and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The protocol is demonstrated using lysozyme and can be generalized to other enzymes.Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 17, 2022
Cascade/Parallel Biocatalysis via Multi-enzyme Encapsulation on Metal–Organic Materials for Rapid and Sustainable Biomass DegradationMultiple-enzyme cooperation simultaneously is an effective approach to biomass conversion and biodegradation. The challenge, however, lies in the interference of the involved enzymes with each other, especially when a protease is needed, and thus, the difficulty in reusing the enzymes; while extracting/synthesizing new enzymes costs energy and negative impact on the environment. Here, we present a unique approach to immobilize multiple enzymes, including a protease, on a metal–organic material (MOM) via co-precipitation in order to enhance the reusability and sustainability. We prove our strategy on the degradation of starch-containing polysaccharides (require two enzymes to degrade) and food proteins (require amore »Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 3, 2022
Site-directed spin labeling-electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy in biocatalysis: Enzyme orientation and dynamics in nanoscale confinementSite-directed spin labeling (SDSL) in combination with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy probes the otherwise inaccessible structural information in complex biological systems. We recently extended SDSL-EPR to reveal the relative orientation and backbone dynamics of enzymes upon encapsulation in mesoporous nanostructures, which set the structural basis underlying the observed biocatalytic activity. Our strategy had generated interest in the biocatalysis community, and thus in this resource article, we contribute an introduction to the principles and experimental procedure that generalize SDSL-EPR to heterogeneous biocatalysis. We will focus on enzymes in mesoporous materials with examples demonstrating the methods and cautions of potential pitfalls.more »
Metal–organic frameworks/materials (MOFs/MOMs) are advanced enzyme immobilization platforms that improve biocatalysis, materials science, and protein biophysics. A unique way to immobilize enzymes is co-crystallization/co-precipitation, which removes the limitation on enzyme/substrate size. Thus far, most enzyme@MOF composites rely on the use of non-sustainable chemicals and, in certain cases, heavy metals, which not only creates concerns regarding environmental conservation but also limits their applications in nutrition and biomedicine. Here, we show that a dimeric compound derived from lignin, 5,5′-dehydrodivanillate (DDVA), co-precipitates with enzymes and low-toxicity metals, Ca2+ and Zn2+, and forms stable enzyme@Ca/Zn–MOM composites. We demonstrated this strategy on four enzymes withmore »