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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023
  2. Abstract

    Stone toolmaking is a human motor skill which provides the earliest archeological evidence motor skill and social learning. Intentionally shaping a stone into a functional tool relies on the interaction of action observation and practice to support motor skill acquisition. The emergence of adaptive and efficient visuomotor processes during motor learning of such a novel motor skill requiring complex semantic understanding, like stone toolmaking, is not understood. Through the examination of eye movements and motor skill, the current study sought to evaluate the changes and relationship in perceptuomotor processes during motor learning and performance over 90 h of training. Participants’ gaze and motor performance were assessed before, during and following training. Gaze patterns reveal a transition from initially high gaze variability during initial observation to lower gaze variability after training. Perceptual changes were strongly associated with motor performance improvements suggesting a coupling of perceptual and motor processes during motor learning.

  3. Synopsis Like many scientific disciplines, the field of reproductive biology is subject to biases in terminology and research foci. For example, females are often described as coy and passive players in reproductive behaviors and are termed “promiscuous” if they engage in extra-pair copulations. Males on the other hand are viewed as actively holding territories and fighting with other males. Males are termed “multiply mating” if they mate with multiple females. Similarly, textbooks often illustrate meiosis as it occurs in males but not females. This edition of Integrative and Comparative Biology (ICB) includes a series of papers that focus on reproduction from the female perspective. These papers represent a subset of the work presented in our symposium and complementary sessions on female reproductive biology. In this round table discussion, we use a question and answer format to leverage the diverse perspectives and voices involved with the symposium in an exploration of theoretical, cultural, pedagogical, and scientific issues related to the study of female biology. We hope this dialog will provide a stepping-stone toward moving reproductive science and teaching to a more inclusive and objective framework.
  4. We present images obtained with LABOCA on the APEX telescope of a sample of 22 galaxies selected via their red Herschel SPIRE 250-, 350- and $500\textrm{-}\mu\textrm{m}$ colors. We aim to see if these luminous, rare and distant galaxies are signposting dense regions in the early Universe. Our $870\textrm{-}\mu\textrm{m}$ survey covers an area of $\approx0.8\,\textrm{deg}^2$ down to an average r.m.s. of $3.9\,\textrm{mJy beam}^{-1}$, with our five deepest maps going $\approx2\times$ deeper still. We catalog 86 DSFGs around our 'signposts', detected above a significance of $3.5\sigma$. This implies a $100\pm30\%$ over-density of $S_{870}>8.5\,\textrm{mJy}$ DSFGs, excluding our signposts, when comparing our number counts to those in 'blank fields'. Thus, we are $99.93\%$ confident that our signposts are pinpointing over-dense regions in the Universe, and $\approx95\%$ confident that these regions are over-dense by a factor of at least $\ge1.5\times$. Using template SEDs and SPIRE/LABOCA photometry we derive a median photometric redshift of $z=3.2\pm0.2$ for our signposts, with an interquartile range of $z=2.8\textrm{-}3.6$. We constrain the DSFGs likely responsible for this over-density to within $|\Delta z|\le0.65$ of their respective signposts. These 'associated' DSFGs are radially distributed within $1.6\pm0.5\,\textrm{Mpc}$ of their signposts, have median SFRs of $\approx(1.0\pm0.2)\times10^3\,M_{\odot}\,\textrm{yr}^{-1}$ (for a Salpeter stellar IMF) and median gas reservoirsmore »of $\sim1.7\times10^{11}\,M_{\odot}$. These candidate proto-clusters have average total SFRs of at least $\approx (2.3\pm0.5)\times10^3\,M_{\odot}\,\textrm{yr}^{-1}$ and space densities of $\sim9\times10^{-7}\,\textrm{Mpc}^{-3}$, consistent with the idea that their constituents may evolve to become massive ETGs in the centers of the rich galaxy clusters we see today.« less