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Creators/Authors contains: "Lewis, Geraint F."

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    Contemporary reverberation mapping campaigns are employing wide-area photometric data and high-multiplex spectroscopy to efficiently monitor hundreds of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). However, the interaction of the window function(s) imposed by the observation cadence with the reverberation lag and AGN variability time-scales (intrinsic to each source over a range of luminosities) impact our ability to recover these fundamental physical properties. Time dilation effects due to the sample source redshift distribution introduce added complexity. We present comprehensive analysis of the implications of observational cadence, seasonal gaps, and campaign baseline duration (i.e. the survey window function) for reverberation lag recovery. We find that the presence of a significant seasonal gap dominates the efficacy of any given campaign strategy for lag recovery across the parameter space, particularly for those sources with observed-frame lags above 100 d. Using the Australian Dark Energy Survey as a baseline, we consider the implications of this analysis for the 4MOST/Time-Domain Extragalactic Survey campaign providing concurrent follow-up of the Legacy Survey of Space and Time deep-drilling fields, as well as upcoming programmes. We conclude that the success of such surveys will be critically limited by the seasonal visibility of some potential field choices, but show significant improvement from extending themore »baseline. Optimizing the sample selection to fit the window function will improve survey efficacy.

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  2. Abstract We report the kinematic, orbital, and chemical properties of 12 stellar streams with no evident progenitors using line-of-sight velocities and metallicities from the Southern Stellar Stream Spectroscopic Survey ( S 5 ), proper motions from Gaia EDR3, and distances derived from distance tracers or the literature. This data set provides the largest homogeneously analyzed set of streams with full 6D kinematics and metallicities. All streams have heliocentric distances between ∼10 and 50 kpc. The velocity and metallicity dispersions show that half of the stream progenitors were disrupted dwarf galaxies (DGs), while the other half originated from disrupted globular clusters (GCs), hereafter referred to as DG and GC streams. Based on the mean metallicities of the streams and the mass–metallicity relation, the luminosities of the progenitors of the DG streams range between those of Carina and Ursa Major I (−9.5 ≲ M V ≲ −5.5). Four of the six GC streams have mean metallicities of [Fe/H] < −2, more metal poor than typical Milky Way (MW) GCs at similar distances. Interestingly, the 300S and Jet GC streams are the only streams on retrograde orbits in our dozen-stream sample. Finally, we compare the orbital properties of the streams with known DGsmore »and GCs in the MW, finding several possible associations. Some streams appear to have been accreted with the recently discovered Gaia–Enceladus–Sausage system, and others suggest that GCs were formed in and accreted together with the progenitors of DG streams whose stellar masses are similar to those of Draco to Carina (∼10 5 –10 6 M ⊙ ).« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023
  3. Abstract Stellar streams are excellent probes of the underlying gravitational potential in which they evolve. In this work, we fit dynamical models to five streams in the Southern Galactic hemisphere, combining observations from the Southern Stellar Stream Spectroscopic Survey ( S 5 ), Gaia EDR3, and the Dark Energy Survey, to measure the mass of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). With an ensemble of streams, we find a mass of the LMC ranging from ∼14–19 × 10 10 M ⊙ , probed over a range of closest approach times and distances. With the most constraining stream (Orphan–Chenab), we measure an LMC mass of 18.8 − 4.0 + 3.5 × 10 10 M ⊙ , probed at a closest approach time of 310 Myr and a closest approach distance of 25.4 kpc. This mass is compatible with previous measurements, showing that a consistent picture is emerging of the LMC’s influence on structures in the Milky Way. Using this sample of streams, we find that the LMC’s effect depends on the relative orientation of the stream and LMC at their point of closest approach. To better understand this, we present a simple model based on the impulse approximation and we show thatmore »the LMC’s effect depends both on the magnitude of the velocity kick imparted to the stream and the direction of this kick.« less
  4. ABSTRACT Until the recent advent of Gaia Data Release 2 (DR2) and deep multi-object spectroscopy, it has been difficult to obtain 6D phase space information for large numbers of stars beyond 4 kpc, in particular towards the Galactic Centre, where dust and crowding are significant. We combine line-of-sight velocities from the Abundances and Radial velocity Galactic Origins Survey (ARGOS) with proper motions from Gaia DR2 to obtain a sample of ∼7000 red clump stars with 3D velocities. We perform a large-scale stellar kinematics study of the Milky Way bulge to characterize the bulge velocity ellipsoids in 20 fields. The tilt of the major-axis of the velocity ellipsoid in the radial-longitudinal velocity plane, or vertex deviation, is characteristic of non-axisymmetric systems and a significant tilt is a robust indicator of non-axisymmetry or bar presence. We compare the observations to the predicted kinematics of an N-body boxy-bulge model formed from dynamical instabilities. In the model, the lv values are strongly correlated with the angle (α) between the bulge major-axis and the Sun-Galactic centre line of sight. We use a maximum likelihood method to obtain an independent measurement of α, from bulge stellar kinematics alone, performing a robust error analysis. The most likely valuemore »of α given our model is α = (29 ± 3)○, with an additional systematic uncertainty due to comparison with one specific model. In Baade’s window, the metal-rich stars display a larger vertex deviation (lv = −40○) than the metal-poor stars (lv = 10○) but we do not detect significant lv−metallicity trends in the other fields.« less
  5. Abstract

    We present the third and final data release of the K2 Galactic Archaeology Program (K2 GAP) for Campaigns C1–C8 and C10–C18. We provide asteroseismic radius and mass coefficients,κRandκM, for ∼19,000 red giant stars, which translate directly to radius and mass given a temperature. As such, K2 GAP DR3 represents the largest asteroseismic sample in the literature to date. K2 GAP DR3 stellar parameters are calibrated to be on an absolute parallactic scale based on Gaia DR2, with red giant branch and red clump evolutionary state classifications provided via a machine-learning approach. Combining these stellar parameters with GALAH DR3 spectroscopy, we determine asteroseismic ages with precisions of ∼20%–30% and compare age-abundance relations to Galactic chemical evolution models among both low- and high-αpopulations forα, light, iron-peak, and neutron-capture elements. We confirm recent indications in the literature of both increased Ba production at late Galactic times as well as significant contributions tor-process enrichment from prompt sources associated with, e.g., core-collapse supernovae. With an eye toward other Galactic archeology applications, we characterize K2 GAP DR3 uncertainties and completeness using injection tests, suggesting that K2 GAP DR3 is largely unbiased in mass/age, with uncertainties of 2.9% (stat.) ± 0.1% (syst.) and 6.7% (stat.) ±more »0.3% (syst.) inκRandκMfor red giant branch stars and 4.7% (stat.) ± 0.3% (syst.) and 11% (stat.) ± 0.9% (syst.) for red clump stars. We also identify percent-level asteroseismic systematics, which are likely related to the time baseline of the underlying data, and which therefore should be considered in TESS asteroseismic analysis.

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  6. Abstract We present the serendipitous discovery of the fastest Main Sequence hyper-velocity star (HVS) by the Southern Stellar Stream Spectroscopic Survey (S5). The star S5-HVS1 is a ∼2.35 M⊙ A-type star located at a distance of ∼9 kpc from the Sun and has a heliocentric radial velocity of 1017 ± 2.7  km s−1 without any signature of velocity variability. The current 3-D velocity of the star in the Galactic frame is 1755 ± 50  km s−1. When integrated backwards in time, the orbit of the star points unambiguously to the Galactic Centre, implying that S5-HVS1 was kicked away from Sgr A* with a velocity of ∼1800  km s−1 and travelled for 4.8 Myr to its current location. This is so far the only HVS confidently associated with the Galactic Centre. S5-HVS1 is also the first hyper-velocity star to provide constraints on the geometry and kinematics of the Galaxy, such as the Solar motion Vy, ⊙ = 246.1 ± 5.3  km s−1 or position R0 = 8.12 ± 0.23 kpc. The ejection trajectory and transit time of S5-HVS1 coincide with the orbital plane and age of the annular disk of young stars at the Galactic centre, and thus may be linked to its formation. With the S5-HVS1 ejection velocity being almost twice themore »velocity of other hyper-velocity stars previously associated with the Galactic Centre, we question whether they have been generated by the same mechanism or whether the ejection velocity distribution has been constant over time.« less