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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  3. Canteaut, A. ; Standaert, F. (Ed.)
    We present passive attacks against CKKS, the homomorphic encryption scheme for arithmetic on approximate numbers presented at Asiacrypt 2017. The attack is both theoretically efficient (running in expected polynomial time) and very practical, leading to complete key recovery with high probability and very modest running times. We implemented and tested the attack against major open source homomorphic encryption libraries, including HEAAN, SEAL, HElib and PALISADE, and when computing several functions that often arise in applications of the CKKS scheme to machine learning on encrypted data, like mean and variance computations, and approximation of logistic and exponential functions using their Maclaurin series. The attack shows that the traditional formulation of IND-CPA security (or indistinguishability against chosen plaintext attacks) achieved by CKKS does not adequately capture security against passive adversaries when applied to approximate encryption schemes, and that a different, stronger definition is required to evaluate the security of such schemes. We provide a solid theoretical basis for the security evaluation of homomorphic encryption on approximate numbers (against passive attacks) by proposing new definitions, that naturally extend the traditional notion of IND-CPA security to the approximate computation setting. We propose both indistinguishability-based and simulation-based variants, as well as restricted versions of themore »definitions that limit the order and number of adversarial queries (as may be enforced by some applications). We prove implications and separations among different definitional variants, and discuss possible modifications to CKKS that may serve as a countermeasure to our attacks.« less
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  5. We introduce a mathematical modeling framework for the conformational dynamics of charged molecules (i.e., solutes) in an aqueous solvent (i.e., water or salted water). The solvent is treated as an incompressible fluid, and its fluctuating motion is described by the Stokes equation with the Landau–Lifschitz stochastic stress. The motion of the solute-solvent interface (i.e., the dielectric boundary) is determined by the fluid velocity together with the balance of the viscous force,hydrostatic pressure, surface tension, solute-solvent van der Waals interaction force, and electrostatic force. The electrostatic interactions are described by the dielectric Poisson–Boltzmann theory.Within such a framework, we derive a generalized Rayleigh–Plesset equation, a nonlinear stochastic ordinary differential equation (SODE), for the radius of a spherical charged molecule, such as anion. The spherical average of the stochastic stress leads to a multiplicative noise. We design and test numerical methods for solving the SODE and use the equation, together with explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulations, to study the effective radius of a single ion. Potentially, our general modeling framework can be used to efficiently determine the solute-solvent interfacial structures and predict the free energies of more complex molecular systems.
  6. Wen, Feng (Ed.)
    Background Since 1999, West Nile virus (WNV) has moved rapidly across the United States, resulting in tens of thousands of human cases. Both the number of human cases and the minimum infection rate (MIR) in vector mosquitoes vary across time and space and are driven by numerous abiotic and biotic forces, ranging from differences in microclimates to socio-demographic factors. Because the interactions among these multiple factors affect the locally variable risk of WNV illness, it has been especially difficult to model human disease risk across varying spatial and temporal scales. Cook and DuPage Counties, comprising the city of Chicago and surrounding suburbs, experience some of the highest numbers of human neuroinvasive cases of WNV in the United States. Despite active mosquito control efforts, there is consistent annual WNV presence, resulting in more than 285 confirmed WNV human cases and 20 deaths from the years 2014–2018 in Cook County alone. Methods A previous Chicago-area WNV model identified the fifty-five most high and low risk locations in the Northwest Mosquito Abatement District (NWMAD), an enclave ¼ the size of the combined Cook and DuPage county area. In these locations, human WNV risk was stratified by model performance, as indicated by differences inmore »studentized residuals. Within these areas, an additional two-years of field collections and data processing was added to a 12-year WNV dataset that includes human cases, MIR, vector abundance, and land-use, historical climate, and socio-economic and demographic variables, and was assessed by an ultra-fine-scale (1 km spatial x 1 week temporal resolution) multivariate logistic regression model. Results Multivariate statistical methods applied to the ultra-fine-scale model identified fewer explanatory variables while improving upon the fit of the previous model. Beyond MIR and climatic factors, efforts to acquire additional covariates only slightly improved model predictive performance. Conclusions These results suggest human WNV illness in the Chicago area may be associated with fewer, but increasingly critical, key variables at finer scales. Given limited resources, these findings suggest large variations in model performance occur, depending on covariate availability, and provide guidance in variable selection for optimal WNV human illness modeling.« less
  7. We develop a hybrid approach that combines the Monte Carlo (MC)method, a variational implicit-solvent model (VISM), and a binary level-set method forthe simulation of biomolecular binding in an aqueous solvent. The solvation free energy for the biomolecular complex is estimated by minimizing the VISM free-energy functional of all possible solute−solvent interfaces that are used as dielectric boundaries. This functional consists of the solute volumetric, solute−solvent interfacial, solute−solvent van der Waals interaction, and electrostatic free energy. A technique of shifting the dielectric boundary is used to accurately predict the electrostatic part of the solvation free energy.Minimizing such a functional in each MC move is made possible by our new and fast binary level-set method. This method is based on the approximation of surface area by the convolution of an indicator function with a compactly supported kernel and is implemented by simple flips of numerical grid cells locally around the solute−solvent interface. We apply our approach to the p53-MDM2 system for which the two molecules are approximated by rigid bodies. Our efficient approach captures some of the poses before the final bound state. All atom molecular dynamics simulations with most of such poses quickly reach the final bound state.Our work is amore »new step toward realistic simulations of biomolecular interactions. With further improvement of coarse graining and MC sampling, and combined with other models, our hybrid approach can be used to study the free-energy landscape and kinetic pathways of ligand binding to proteins.« less