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  1. Abstract

    Stable isotope ratios of H (δ2H), O (δ18O), and C (δ13C) are linked to key biogeochemical processes of the water and carbon cycles; however, the degree to which isotope-associated processes are reflected in macroscale ecosystem flux observations remains unquantified. Here through formal information assessment, new measurements ofδ13C of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) as well asδ2H andδ18O of latent heat (LH) fluxes across the United States National Ecological Observation Network (NEON) are used to determine conditions under which isotope measurements are informative of environmental exchanges. We find all three isotopic datasets individually contain comparable amounts of information aboutNEEandLHfluxes as wind speed observations. Such information from isotope measurements, however, is largely unique. Generally,δ13C provides more information aboutLHas aridity increases or mean annual precipitation decreases.δ2H provides more information aboutLHas temperatures or mean annual precipitation decreases, and also provides more information aboutNEEas temperatures decrease. Overall, we show that the stable isotope datasets collected by NEON contribute non-trivial amounts of new information about bulk environmental fluxes useful for interpreting biogeochemical and ecohydrological processes at landscape scales. However, the utility of this new information varies with environmental conditions at continental scales. This study provides an approach for quantifying the value adding non-traditional sensing approaches to environmental monitoring sites and the patterns identified here are expected to aid in modeling and data interpretation efforts focused on constraining carbon and water cycles’ mechanisms.

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  2. Abstract

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) provides open-access measurements of stable isotope ratios in atmospheric water vapor (δ2H, δ18O) and carbon dioxide (δ13C) at different tower heights, as well as aggregated biweekly precipitation samples (δ2H, δ18O) across the United States. These measurements were used to create the NEON Daily Isotopic Composition of Environmental Exchanges (NEON-DICEE) dataset estimating precipitation (P; δ2H, δ18O), evapotranspiration (ET; δ2H, δ18O), and net ecosystem exchange (NEE; δ13C) isotope ratios. Statistically downscaled precipitation datasets were generated to be consistent with the estimated covariance between isotope ratios and precipitation amounts at daily time scales. Isotope ratios in ET and NEE fluxes were estimated using a mixing-model approach with calibrated NEON tower measurements. NEON-DICEE is publicly available on HydroShare and can be reproduced or modified to fit user specific applications or include additional NEON data records as they become available. The NEON-DICEE dataset can facilitate understanding of terrestrial ecosystem processes through their incorporation into environmental investigations that require daily δ2H, δ18O, and δ13C flux data.

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  3. Abstract

    The development of non‐noble metal materials for efficient hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in wide pH range is still a challenge at present. Herein, a predesigned polyoxometalate (POM)‐based metal–organic polymer {L3Co2 · 6H2O}[H3GeMo12O40] · 9H2O (L = 1,2,4‐triazole) is employed as bimetallic source together with thiourea converting to CoS2@MoS2on carbon cloth (CC) (abbreviated to CoS2@MoS2@CC) for the first time. Impressively, the CoS2@MoS2in the form of vertically interconnected nanoarrays with multiple interfaces are grown in situ on CC and act as electrodes directly for HER. The CoS2@MoS2@CC‐30h composite exhibits superb activity and long‐durability in both acidic and alkaline media. Low overpotential is achieved in 0.5mH2SO4(65 mV) and 1.0mKOH (87 mV) for 10 mA cm−2versus RHE, which overmatch major MoS2‐/POM‐based electrocatalysts. This work therefore may shed substantial lights on designing active and durable molybdenum‐based bi‐/polymetallic sulfide from variable POM‐based metal–organic polymers for electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution reaction in wide pH range.

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  4. Abstract

    It is a critical time to reflect on the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) science to date as well as envision what research can be done right now with NEON (and other) data and what training is needed to enable a diverse user community. NEON became fully operational in May 2019 and has pivoted from planning and construction to operation and maintenance. In this overview, the history of and foundational thinking around NEON are discussed. A framework of open science is described with a discussion of how NEON can be situated as part of a larger data constellation—across existing networks and different suites of ecological measurements and sensors. Next, a synthesis of early NEON science, based on >100 existing publications, funded proposal efforts, and emergent science at the very first NEON Science Summit (hosted by Earth Lab at the University of Colorado Boulder in October 2019) is provided. Key questions that the ecology community will address with NEON data in the next 10 yr are outlined, from understanding drivers of biodiversity across spatial and temporal scales to defining complex feedback mechanisms in human–environmental systems. Last, the essential elements needed to engage and support a diverse and inclusive NEON user community are highlighted: training resources and tools that are openly available, funding for broad community engagement initiatives, and a mechanism to share and advertise those opportunities. NEON users require both the skills to work with NEON data and the ecological or environmental science domain knowledge to understand and interpret them. This paper synthesizes early directions in the community’s use of NEON data, and opportunities for the next 10 yr of NEON operations in emergent science themes, open science best practices, education and training, and community building.

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