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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 14, 2024
  2. Perforated microelectrode arrays (pMEAs) have become essential tools for ex vivo retinal electrophysiological studies. pMEAs increase the nutrient supply to the explant and alleviate the accentuated curvature of the retina, allowing for long-term culture and intimate contacts between the retina and electrodes for electrophysiological measurements. However, commercial pMEAs are not compatible with in situ high-resolution optical imaging and lack the capability of controlling the local microenvironment, which are highly desirable features for relating function to anatomy and probing physiological and pathological mechanisms in retina. Here we report on microfluidic pMEAs (μpMEAs) that combine transparent graphene electrodes and the capability of locally delivering chemical stimulation. We demonstrate the potential of μpMEAs by measuring the electrical response of ganglion cells to locally delivered high K + stimulation under controlled microenvironments. Importantly, the capability for high-resolution confocal imaging of the retina tissue on top of the graphene electrodes allows for further analyses of the electrical signal source. The new capabilities provided by μpMEAs could allow for retinal electrophysiology assays to address key questions in retinal circuitry studies. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 2, 2024
  3. Abstract

    Hyperbolic phonon polaritons (HPhPs) are stimulated by coupling infrared (IR) photons with the polar lattice vibrations. Such HPhPs offer low‐loss, highly confined light propagation at subwavelength scales with out‐of‐plane or in‐plane hyperbolic wavefronts. For HPhPs, while a hyperbolic dispersion implies multiple propagating modes with a distribution of wavevectors at a given frequency, so far it has been challenging to experimentally launch and probe the higher‐order modes that offer stronger wavelength compression, especially for in‐plane HPhPs. In this work, the experimental observation of higher‐order in‐plane HPhP modes stimulated on a 3C‐SiC nanowire (NW)/α‐MoO3heterostructure is reported where leveraging both the low‐dimensionality and low‐loss nature of the polar NWs, higher‐order HPhPs modes within 2D α‐MoO3crystal are launched by the 1D 3C‐SiC NW. The launching mechanism is further studied and the requirements for efficiently launching of such higher‐order modes are determined. In addition, by altering the geometric orientation between the 3C‐SiC NW and α‐MoO3crystal, the manipulation of higher‐order HPhP dispersions as a method of tuning is demonstrated. This work illustrates an extremely anisotropic low dimensional heterostructure platform to confine and configure electromagnetic waves at the deep‐subwavelength scales for a range of IR applications including sensing, nano‐imaging, and on‐chip photonics.

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  4. null (Ed.)