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  1. Due to the often limited communication bandwidth of edge devices, most existing federated learning (FL) methods randomly select only a subset of devices to participate in training at each communication round. Compared with engaging all the available clients, such a random-selection mechanism could lead to significant performance degradation on non-IID (independent and identically distributed) data. In this paper, we present our key observation that the essential reason resulting in such performance degradation is the class-imbalance of the grouped data from randomly selected clients. Based on this observation, we design an efficient heterogeneity-aware client sampling mechanism, namely, Federated Class-balanced Sampling (Fed-CBS), which can effectively reduce class-imbalance of the grouped dataset from the intentionally selected clients. We first propose a measure of class-imbalance which can be derived in a privacy-preserving way. Based on this measure, we design a computationefficient client sampling strategy such that the actively selected clients will generate a more classbalanced grouped dataset with theoretical guarantees. Experimental results show that Fed-CBS outperforms the status quo approaches in terms of test accuracy and the rate of convergence while achieving comparable or even better performance than the ideal setting where all the available clients participate in the FL training.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 23, 2024
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  4. Deformable Convolutional Networks (DCN) have been proposed as a powerful tool to boost the representation power of Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) in computer vision tasks via adaptive sampling of the input feature map. Much like vision transformers, DCNs utilize a more flexible inductive bias than standard CNNs and have also been shown to improve performance of particular models. For example, drop-in DCN layers were shown to increase the AP score of Mask RCNN by 10.6 points while introducing only 1% additional parameters and FLOPs, improving the state-of-the art model at the time of publication. However, despite evidence that more DCN layers placed earlier in the network can further improve performance, we have not seen this trend continue with further scaling of deformations in CNNs, unlike for vision transformers. Benchmarking experiments show that a realistically sized DCN layer (64H×64W, 64 in-out channel) incurs a 4× slowdown on a GPU platform, discouraging the more ubiquitous use of deformations in CNNs. These slowdowns are caused by the irregular input-dependent access patterns of the bilinear interpolation operator, which has a disproportionately low arithmetic intensity (AI) compared to the rest of the DCN. To address the disproportionate slowdown of DCNs and enable their expanded usemore »in CNNs, we propose DefT, a series of workload-aware optimizations for DCN kernels. DefT identifies performance bottlenecks in DCNs and fuses specific operators that are observed to limit DCN AI. Our approach also uses statistical information of DCN workloads to adapt the workload tiling to the DCN layer dimensions, minimizing costly out-of-boundary input accesses. Experimental results show that DefT mitigates up to half of DCN slowdown over the current-art PyTorch implementation. This translates to a layerwise speedup of up to 134% and a reduction of normalized training time of 46% on a fully DCN-enabled ResNet model.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 25, 2024
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2024
  6. The rise of deep neural networks offers new opportunities in optimizing recommender systems. However, optimizing recommender systems using deep neural networks requires delicate architecture fabrication. We propose NASRec, a paradigm that trains a single supernet and efficiently produces abundant models/sub-architectures by weight sharing. To overcome the data multi-modality and architecture heterogeneity challenges in the recommendation domain, NASRec establishes a large supernet (i.e., search space) to search the full architectures. The supernet incorporates versatile choice of operators and dense connectivity to minimize human efforts for finding priors. The scale and heterogeneity in NASRec impose several challenges, such as training inefficiency, operator-imbalance, and degraded rank correlation. We tackle these challenges by proposing single-operator any-connection sampling, operator-balancing interaction modules, and post-training fine-tuning. Our crafted models, NASRecNet, show promising results on three Click-Through Rates (CTR) prediction benchmarks, indicating that NASRec outperforms both manually designed models and existing NAS methods with state-of-the-art performance. Our work is publicly available here.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 30, 2024
  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2024
  8. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2024
  9. The interaction and dimension of points are two important axes in designing point operators to serve hierarchical 3D models. Yet, these two axes are heterogeneous and challenging to fully explore. Existing works craft point operator under a single axis and reuse the crafted operator in all parts of 3D models. This overlooks the opportunity to better combine point interactions and dimensions by exploiting varying geometry/density of 3D point clouds. In this work, we establish PIDS, a novel paradigm to jointly explore point interactions and point dimensions to serve semantic segmentation on point cloud data. We establish a large search space to jointly consider versatile point interactions and point dimensions. This supports point operators with various geometry/density considerations. The enlarged search space with heterogeneous search components calls for a better ranking of candidate models. To achieve this, we improve the search space exploration by leveraging predictor-based Neural Architecture Search (NAS), and enhance the quality of prediction by assigning unique encoding to heterogeneous search components based on their priors. We thoroughly evaluate the networks crafted by PIDS on two semantic segmentation benchmarks, showing 1% mIOU improvement on SemanticKITTI and S3DIS over state-of-the-art 3D models.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 3, 2024
  10. Many real-world scenarios in which DNN-based recognition systems are deployed have inherently fine-grained attributes (e.g., bird-species recognition, medical image classification). In addition to achieving reliable accuracy, a critical subtask for these models is to detect Out-of-distribution (OOD) inputs. Given the nature of the deployment environment, one may expect such OOD inputs to also be fine-grained w.r.t. the known classes (e.g., a novel bird species), which are thus extremely difficult to identify. Unfortunately, OOD detection in fine-grained scenarios remains largely underexplored. In this work, we aim to fill this gap by first carefully constructing four large-scale fine-grained test environments, in which existing methods are shown to have difficulties. Particularly, we find that even explicitly incorporating a diverse set of auxiliary outlier data during training does not provide sufficient coverage over the broad region where fine-grained OOD samples locate. We then propose Mixture Outlier Exposure (MixOE), which mixes ID data and training outliers to expand the coverage of different OOD granularities, and trains the model such that the prediction confidence linearly decays as the input transitions from ID to OOD. Extensive experiments and analyses demonstrate the effectiveness of MixOE for building up OOD detector in fine-grained environments. The code is available atmore »« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 3, 2024