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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2024
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2024
  3. Abstract

    Charge density waves (CDWs) in kagome metals have been tied to many exotic phenomena. Here, using spectroscopic-imaging scanning tunneling microscopy and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we study the charge order in kagome metal ScV6Sn6. The similarity of electronic band structures of ScV6Sn6and TbV6Sn6(where charge ordering is absent) suggests that charge ordering in ScV6Sn6is unlikely to be primarily driven by Fermi surface nesting of the Van Hove singularities. In contrast to the CDW state of cousin kagome metals, we find no evidence supporting rotation symmetry breaking. Differential conductance dI/dVspectra show a partial gapΔ1CO ≈ 20 meV at the Fermi level. Interestingly, dI/dVmaps reveal that charge modulations exhibit an abrupt phase shift as a function of energy at energy much higher thanΔ1CO, which we attribute to another spectral gap. Our experiments reveal a distinctive nature of the charge order in ScV6Sn6with fundamental differences compared to other kagome metals.

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  4. Abstract

    The class ofAV3Sb5(A=K, Rb, Cs) kagome metals hosts unconventional charge density wave states seemingly intertwined with their low temperature superconducting phases. The nature of the coupling between these two states and the potential presence of nearby, competing charge instabilities however remain open questions. This phenomenology is strikingly highlighted by the formation of two ‘domes’ in the superconducting transition temperature upon hole-doping CsV3Sb5. Here we track the evolution of charge correlations upon the suppression of long-range charge density wave order in the first dome and into the second of the hole-doped kagome superconductor CsV3Sb5−xSnx. Initially, hole-doping drives interlayer charge correlations to become short-ranged with their periodicity diminished along the interlayer direction. Beyond the peak of the first superconducting dome, the parent charge density wave state vanishes and incommensurate, quasi-1D charge correlations are stabilized in its place. These competing, unidirectional charge correlations demonstrate an inherent electronic rotational symmetry breaking in CsV3Sb5, and reveal a complex landscape of charge correlations within its electronic phase diagram. Our data suggest an inherent 2kfcharge instability and competing charge orders in theAV3Sb5class of kagome superconductors.

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  5. Although the importance of using static taint analysis to detect taint-style vulnerabilities in Linux-based embedded firmware is widely recognized, existing approaches are plagued by following major limitations: (a) Existing works cannot properly handle indirect call on the path from attacker-controlled sources to security-sensitive sinks, resulting in lots of false negatives. (b) They employ heuristics to identify mediate taint source and it is not accurate enough, which leads to high false positives. To address issues, we propose EmTaint, a novel static approach for accurate and fast detection of taint-style vulnerabilities in Linux-based embedded firmware. In EmTaint, we first design a structured symbolic expression-based (SSE-based) on-demand alias analysis technique. Based on it, we come up with indirect call resolution and accurate taint analysis scheme. Combined with sanitization rule checking, EmTaint can eventually discovers a large number of taint-style vulnerabilities accurately within a limited time. We evaluated EmTaint against 35 real-world embedded firmware samples from six popular vendors. The result shows EmTaint discovered at least 192 vulnerabilities, including 41 n-day vulnerabilities and 151 0-day vulnerabilities. At least 115 CVE/PSV numbers have been allocated from a subset of the reported vulnerabilities at the time of writing. Compared with state-of-the-art tools such as KARONTE and SaTC, EmTaint found significantly more vulnerabilities on the same dataset in less time. 
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  6. Abstract Lacustrine dolomite nucleation commonly occurs in modern and Neogene evaporitic alkaline lakes. As a result, ancient lacustrine microcrystalline dolomite has been conventionally interpreted to be formed in evaporitic environments. This study, however, suggests a non‐evaporitic origin of dolomite precipitated in a volcanic–hydrothermal lake, where hydrothermal and volcanic processes interacted. The dolomite occurs in lacustrine fine‐grained sedimentary rocks in the middle Permian Lucaogou Formation in the Santanghu intracontinental rift basin, north‐west China. Dolostones are composed mainly of nano‐sized to micron‐sized dolomite with a euhedral to subhedral shape and a low degree of cation ordering, and are interlaminated and intercalated with tuffaceous shale. Non‐dolomite minerals, including quartz, alkaline feldspars, smectite and magnesite mix with the dolomite in various proportions. The 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios (0.704528 to 0.705372, average = 0.705004) and δ 26 Mg values (−0.89 to −0.24‰, average = −0.55‰) of dolostones are similar to those of mantle rocks, indicating that the precipitates mainly originated from fluids that migrated upward from the mantle and were subject to water–rock reactions at a great depth. The δ 18 O values (−3.1 to −22.7‰, average = −14.0‰) of the dolostones indicate hydrothermal influence. The trace and rare earth element concentrations suggest a saline, anoxic and volcanic–hydrothermally‐influenced subaqueous environment. In this subaqueous environment of Lucaogou lake, locally high temperatures and a supply of abundant Mg 2+ from a deep source induced by volcanic–hydrothermal activity formed favourable chemical conditions for direct precipitation of primary dolomite. This study's findings deepen the understanding of the origin and processes of lacustrine primary dolomite formation and provide an alternative possibility for environmental interpretations of ancient dolostones. 
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