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Creators/Authors contains: "Li, Hong���Yi"

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  1. Abstract

    Bedload is notoriously challenging to measure and model; its dynamics, therefore, remains largely unknown in most fluvial systems worldwide. We present results from a global scale bedload flux model as part of the WBMsed modeling framework that well predict the distribution of water discharge, suspended sediment and bedload. The sensitivity of bedload predictions to river slope, particle size, discharge, river width, and suspended sediment were analyzed, showing the model to be most responsive to spatial dynamics in river discharge and slope. The relationship between bedload and total sediment flux is analyzed globally, and for representative longitudinal river profiles (Amazon, Mississippi, and Lena Rivers). The results show that while the proportion of bedload decreases from headwaters to the coasts, there is considerable variability between basins and along river corridors. The topographic and hydrological longitudinal profiles of rivers are shown to be the key drivers of bedload trends, with fluctuations in slope controlling its more local dynamics. Estimates of water and sediment fluxes to global oceans from 2,067 largest river outlets (draining 67% of the global continental area) are provided. Estimated water discharge at 30,579 km3/y corresponds well to past estimates; however, sediment flux is higher. Total global particulate load of 17.8 Gt/y is delivered to global oceans, 14.8 Gt/y as washload, 1.1 Gt/y as bedload, and 2.6 Gt/y as suspended bed material. The largest 25 rivers are predicted to transport more than half of the total sediment flux to global oceans.

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  2. Abstract

    Global carbon dioxide (CO2) evasion from inland waters (rivers, lakes, and reservoirs) and carbon (C) export from land to oceans constitute critical terms in the global C budget. However, the magnitudes, spatiotemporal patterns, and underlying mechanisms of these fluxes are poorly constrained. Here, we used a coupled terrestrial–aquatic model to assess how multiple changes in climate, land use, atmospheric CO2concentration, nitrogen (N) deposition, N fertilizer and manure applications have affected global CO2evasion and riverine C export along the terrestrial‐aquatic continuum. We estimate that terrestrial C loadings, riverine C export, and CO2evasion in the preindustrial period (1800s) were 1,820 ± 507 (mean ± standard deviation), 765 ± 132, and 841 ± 190 Tg C yr−1, respectively. During 1800–2019, multifactorial global changes caused an increase of 25% (461 Tg C yr−1) in terrestrial C loadings, reaching 2,281 Tg C yr−1in the 2010s, with 23% (104 Tg C yr−1) of this increase exported to the ocean and 59% (273 Tg C yr−1) being emitted to the atmosphere. Our results showed that global inland water recycles and exports nearly half of the net land C sink into the atmosphere and oceans, highlighting the important role of inland waters in the global C balance, an amount that should be taken into account in future C budgets. Our analysis supports the view that a major feature of the global C cycle–the transfer from land to ocean–has undergone a dramatic change over the last two centuries as a result of human activities.

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  3. Abstract

    Vulnerability of coastal regions to extreme events motivates an operational coupled inland‐coastal modeling strategy focusing on the coastal transition zone (CTZ), an area between the coast and upland river. To tackle this challenge, we propose a top‐down framework for investigating the contribution of different processes to the hydrodynamics of CTZs with various geometrical shapes, different physical properties, and under several forcing conditions. We further propose a novel method, called tidal vanishing point (TVP), for delineating the extent of CTZs through the upland. We demonstrate the applicability of our framework over the United States East and Gulf coasts. We categorize CTZs in the region into three classes, namely, without estuary (direct river–coast connection), triangular‐, and trapezoidal‐shaped estuary. The results show that although semidiurnal tidal constituents are dominant in most cases, diurnal tidal constituents become more prevalent in the river segment as the discharge increases. Also, decreasing the bed roughness value promotes more significant changes in the results than increasing it by the same value. Additionally, the estuary promotes tidal energy attenuation and consequently decreases the reach of tidal signals through the upland. The proposed framework is generic and extensible to any coastal region.

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