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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2025
  2. NA (Ed.)

    Stable matching of neurotransmitters with their receptors is fundamental to synapse function and reliable communication in neural circuits. Presynaptic neurotransmitters regulate the stabilization of postsynaptic transmitter receptors. Whether postsynaptic receptors regulate stabilization of presynaptic transmitters has received less attention. Here, we show that blockade of endogenous postsynaptic acetylcholine receptors (AChR) at the neuromuscular junction destabilizes the cholinergic phenotype in motor neurons and stabilizes an earlier, developmentally transient glutamatergic phenotype. Further, expression of exogenous postsynaptic gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAAreceptors) in muscle cells stabilizes an earlier, developmentally transient GABAergic motor neuron phenotype. Both AChR and GABAAreceptors are linked to presynaptic neurons through transsynaptic bridges. Knockdown of specific components of these transsynaptic bridges prevents stabilization of the cholinergic or GABAergic phenotypes. Bidirectional communication can enforce a match between transmitter and receptor and ensure the fidelity of synaptic transmission. Our findings suggest a potential role of dysfunctional transmitter receptors in neurological disorders that involve the loss of the presynaptic transmitter.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 9, 2025
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 3, 2024
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 3, 2024
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 12, 2024

    Stellar feedback plays a crucial role in regulating baryon cycles of a galactic ecosystem, and may manifest itself in the formation of superbubbles in the interstellar medium. In this work, we used a set of high-resolution simulations to systematically study the properties and evolution of superbubbles in galactic environments. The simulations were based on the SMUGGLE galaxy formation framework using the hydrodynamical moving-mesh code arepo, reaching a spatial resolution of $\sim 4 \, \rm pc$ and mass resolution of $\sim 10^3 \, \rm M_{\odot }$. We identified superbubbles and tracked their time evolution using the parent stellar associations within the bubbles. The X-ray luminosity-size distribution of superbubbles in the fiducial run is largely consistent with the observations of nearby galaxies. The size of superbubbles shows a double-peaked distribution, with the peaks attributed to early feedback (radiative and stellar wind feedback) and supernova feedback. The early feedback tends to suppress the subsequent supernova feedback, and it is strongly influenced by star formation efficiency, which regulates the environmental density. Our results show that the volume filling factor of hot gas (T > 105.5 K) is about $12~{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ averaged over a region of 4 kpc in height and 20 kpc in radius centred on the disc of the galaxy. Overall, the properties of superbubbles are sensitive to the choice of subgrid galaxy formation models and can, therefore, be used to constrain these models.

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  7. Context.The star cluster initial mass function is observed to have an inverse power law exponent around 2, yet there is no consensus on what determines this distribution, and why some variation is observed in different galaxies. Furthermore, the cluster formation efficiency (CFE) covers a range of values, particularly when considering different environments. These clusters are often used to empirically constrain star formation and as fundamental units for stellar feedback models. Detailed galaxy models must therefore accurately capture the basic properties of observed clusters to be considered predictive.

    Aims.We study how feedback mechanisms acting on different timescales and with different energy budgets affect the star cluster mass function and CFE.

    Methods.We use hydrodynamical simulations of a dwarf galaxy as a laboratory to study star cluster formation. We test different combinations of stellar feedback mechanisms, including stellar winds, ionizing radiation, and supernovae (SNe).

    Results.Each feedback mechanism affects the CFE and cluster mass function. Increasing the feedback budget by combining the different types of feedback decreases the CFE by reducing the number of massive clusters. Ionizing radiation is found to be especially influential. This effect depends on the timing of feedback initiation, as shown by comparing early and late feedback. Early feedback occurs from ionizing radiation and stellar winds with onset immediately after a massive star is formed. Late feedback occurs when energy injection only starts after the main-sequence lifetime of the most massive SN progenitor, a timing that is further influenced by the choice of the most massive SN progenitor. Late feedback alone results in a broad, flat mass function, approaching a log-normal shape in the complete absence of feedback. Early feedback, on the other hand, produces a power-law cluster mass function with lower CFE, albeit with a steeper slope than that usually observed.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2025
  8. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2025
  9. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2024

    Modelling galaxy formation in hydrodynamic simulations has increasingly adopted various radiative transfer methods to account for photoionization feedback from young massive stars. However, the evolution of H ii regions around stars begins in dense star-forming clouds and spans large dynamical ranges in both space and time, posing severe challenges for numerical simulations in terms of both spatial and temporal resolution that depends strongly on gas density (∝n−1). In this work, we perform a series of idealized H ii region simulations using the moving-mesh radiation-hydrodynamic code arepo-rt to study the effects of numerical resolution. The simulated results match the analytical solutions and the ionization feedback converges only if the Strömgren sphere is resolved by at least 10–100 resolution elements and the size of each time integration step is smaller than 0.1 times the recombination time-scale. Insufficient spatial resolution leads to reduced ionization fraction but enhanced ionized gas mass and momentum feedback from the H ii regions, as well as degrading the multiphase interstellar medium into a diffuse, partially ionized, warm (∼8000 K) gas. On the other hand, insufficient temporal resolution strongly suppresses the effects of ionizing feedback. This is because longer time-steps are not able to resolve the rapid variation of the thermochemistry properties of the gas cells around massive stars, especially when the photon injection and thermochemistry are performed with different cadences. Finally, we provide novel numerical implementations to overcome the above issues when strict resolution requirements are not achievable in practice.

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