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  4. Murali T., Narasimhan G. ; Rajasekaran S., Skums P. (Ed.)
    Subcellular localization plays important roles in protein’s functioning. In this paper, we developed a hidden Markov model to detect de novo signals in protein sequences that target at a particular cellular location: plasmodesmata. We also developed a support vector machine to classify plasmodesmata located proteins (PDLPs) in Arabidopsis, and devised a decision-tree approach to combine the SVM and HMM for better classification performance. The methods achieved high performance with ROC score 0.99 in cross-validation test on a set of 360 type I transmembrane proteins in Arabidopsis. The predicted PD targeting signals in one PDLP have been experimentally verified.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 18, 2022
  5. In a powder bed fusion additive manufacturing (AM) process, the balling effect has a significant impact on the surface quality of the printing parts. Surface wetting helps the bonding between powder and substrate and the inter-particle fusion, whereas the balling effect forms large spheroidal beads around the laser beam and causes voids, discontinuities, and poor surface roughness during the printing process. To better understand the transient dynamics, a theoretical model with a simplified 2D configuration is developed to investigate the underlying fluid flow and heat transfer, phase transition, and interfacial instability along with the laser heating. We demonstrate that themore »degree of wetting and fast solidification counter-balance the balling effect, and the Rayleigh-Plateau flow instability plays an important role for cases with relatively low substrate wettability and high scanning rate.« less
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  9. We present a multiline survey of the interstellar medium (ISM) in two z  > 6 quasar host galaxies, PJ231−20 ( z  = 6.59) and PJ308−21 ( z  = 6.23), and their two companion galaxies. Observations were carried out using the Atacama Large (sub-)Millimeter Array (ALMA). We targeted 11 transitions including atomic fine-structure lines (FSLs) and molecular lines: [NII] 205 μm , [CI] 369 μm , CO ( J up  = 7, 10, 15, 16), H 2 O 3 12  − 2 21 , 3 21  − 3 12 , 3 03  − 2 12 , and the OH 163 μm doublet. The underlying far-infrared (FIR) continuum samples the Rayleigh-Jeans tail of the respectivemore »dust emission. By combining this information with our earlier ALMA [CII] 158 μm observations, we explored the effects of star formation and black hole feedback on the ISM of the galaxies using the CLOUDY radiative transfer models. We estimated dust masses, spectral indexes, IR luminosities, and star-formation rates from the FIR continuum. The analysis of the FSLs indicates that the [CII] 158 μm and [CI] 369 μm emission arises predominantly from the neutral medium in photodissociation regions (PDRs). We find that line deficits agree with those of local luminous IR galaxies. The CO spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) reveal significant high- J CO excitation in both quasar hosts. Our CO SLED modeling of the quasar PJ231−20 shows that PDRs dominate the molecular mass and CO luminosities for J up  ≤ 7, while the J up  ≥ 10 CO emission is likely driven by X-ray dissociation regions produced by the active galactic nucleus (AGN) at the very center of the quasar host. The J up  > 10 lines are undetected in the other galaxies in our study. The H 2 O 3 21  − 3 12 line detection in the same quasar places this object on the L H 2 O  −  L TIR relation found for low- z sources, thus suggesting that this water vapor transition is predominantly excited by IR pumping. Models of the H 2 O SLED and of the H 2 O-to-OH 163 μm ratio point to PDR contributions with high volume and column density ( n H  ∼ 0.8 × 10 5 cm −3 , N H  = 10 24 cm −2 ) in an intense radiation field. Our analysis suggests a less highly excited medium in the companion galaxies. However, the current data do not allow us to definitively rule out an AGN in these sources, as suggested by previous studies of the same objects. This work demonstrates the power of multiline studies of FIR diagnostics in order to dissect the physical conditions in the first massive galaxies emerging from cosmic dawn.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2022
  10. Carbon is an essential element for life, but its behavior during Earth’s accretion is not well understood. Carbonaceous grains in meteoritic and cometary materials suggest that irreversible sublimation, and not condensation, governs carbon acquisition by terrestrial worlds. Through astronomical observations and modeling, we show that the sublimation front of carbon carriers in the solar nebula, or the soot line, moved inward quickly so that carbon-rich ingredients would be available for accretion at 1 astronomical unit after the first million years. On the other hand, geological constraints firmly establish a severe carbon deficit in Earth, requiring the destruction of inherited carbonaceousmore »organics in the majority of its building blocks. The carbon-poor nature of Earth thus implies carbon loss in its precursor material through sublimation within the first million years.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2022