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  1. Beard, Daniel A. (Ed.)
    Environmentally induced or epigenetic-related beta-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance play a critical role in the progression to diabetes. We developed a mathematical modeling framework capable of studying the progression to diabetes incorporating various diabetogenic factors. Considering the heightened risk of beta-cell defects induced by obesity, we focused on the obesity-diabetes model to further investigate the influence of obesity on beta-cell function and glucose regulation. The model characterizes individualized glucose and insulin dynamics over the span of a lifetime. We then fit the model to the longitudinal data of the Pima Indian population, which captures both the fluctuations and long-term trends of glucose levels. As predicted, controlling or eradicating the obesity-related factor can alleviate, postpone, or even reverse diabetes. Furthermore, our results reveal that distinct abnormalities of beta-cell function and levels of insulin resistance among individuals contribute to different risks of diabetes. This study may encourage precise interventions to prevent diabetes and facilitate individualized patient treatment. 
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  2. Mathematical modeling has provided quantitative information consistent with experimental data, greatly improving our understanding of the progression of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. However, diabetes is a complex metabolic disease and has been found to be involved in crosstalk interactions with diverse endocrine diseases. Mathematical models have also been developed to investigate the quantitative impact of various hormonal disorders on glucose imbalance, advancing the precision treatment for secondary diabetes. Here we review the models established for the study of dysglycemia induced by hormonal disorders, such as excessive glucocorticoids, epinephrine, and growth hormone. To investigate the influence of hyperthyroidism on the glucose regulatory system, we also propose a hyperthyroid-diabetes progression model. Model simulations indicate that timely thyroid treatment can halt the progression of hyperglycemia and prevent beta-cell failure. This highlights the diagnosis of hormonal disorders, together withblood sugar tests, as significant measures for the early diagnosis and treatment of diabetes. The work recapitulates updated biological research on the interactions between the glucose regulatory system and other endocrine axes. Further mathematical modeling of secondary diabetes is desired to promote the quantitative study of the disease and the development of individualized diabetic therapies. 
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