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    Brain-effective connectivity analysis quantifies directed influence of one neural element or region over another, and it is of great scientific interest to understand how effective connectivity pattern is affected by variations of subject conditions. Vector autoregression (VAR) is a useful tool for this type of problems. However, there is a paucity of solutions when there is measurement error, when there are multiple subjects, and when the focus is the inference of the transition matrix. In this article, we study the problem of transition matrix inference under the high-dimensional VAR model with measurement error and multiple subjects. We propose a simultaneous testing procedure, with three key components: a modified expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm, a test statistic based on the tensor regression of a bias-corrected estimator of the lagged auto-covariance given the covariates, and a properly thresholded simultaneous test. We establish the uniform consistency for the estimators of our modified EM, and show that the subsequent test achieves both a consistent false discovery control, and its power approaches one asymptotically. We demonstrate the efficacy of our method through both simulations and a brain connectivity study of task-evoked functional magnetic resonance imaging.

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  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2025
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2025
  4. Abstract

    Delineating associations between images and covariates is a central aim of imaging studies. To tackle this problem, we propose a novel non-parametric approach in the framework of spatially varying coefficient models, where the spatially varying functions are estimated through deep neural networks. Our method incorporates spatial smoothness, handles subject heterogeneity, and provides straightforward interpretations. It is also highly flexible and accurate, making it ideal for capturing complex association patterns. We establish estimation and selection consistency and derive asymptotic error bounds. We demonstrate the method’s advantages through intensive simulations and analyses of two functional magnetic resonance imaging data sets.

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  5. Abstract

    The Markov property is widely imposed in analysis of time series data. Correspondingly, testing the Markov property, and relatedly, inferring the order of a Markov model, are of paramount importance. In this article, we propose a nonparametric test for the Markov property in high-dimensional time series via deep conditional generative learning. We also apply the test sequentially to determine the order of the Markov model. We show that the test controls the type-I error asymptotically, and has the power approaching one. Our proposal makes novel contributions in several ways. We utilise and extend state-of-the-art deep generative learning to estimate the conditional density functions, and establish a sharp upper bound on the approximation error of the estimators. We derive a doubly robust test statistic, which employs a nonparametric estimation but achieves a parametric convergence rate. We further adopt sample splitting and cross-fitting to minimise the conditions required to ensure the consistency of the test. We demonstrate the efficacy of the test through both simulations and the three data applications.

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