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  1. Abstract

    Urban areas are known to modify the spatial pattern of precipitation climatology. Existing observational evidence suggests that precipitation can be enhanced downwind of a city. Among the proposed mechanisms, the thermodynamic and aerodynamic processes in the urban lower atmosphere interact with the meteorological conditions and can play a key role in determining the resulting precipitation patterns. In addition, these processes are influenced by urban form, such as the impervious surface extent. This study aims to unravel how different urban forms impact the spatial patterns of precipitation climatology under different meteorological conditions. We use the Multi‐Radar Multi‐Sensor quantitative precipitation estimation data products and analyze the hourly precipitation maps for 27 selected cities across the continental United States from the years 2015–2021 summer months. Results show that about 80% of the studied cities exhibit a statistically significant downwind enhancement of precipitation. Additionally, we find that the precipitation pattern tends to be more spatially clustered in intensity under higher wind speed; the location of radial precipitation maxima is located closer to the city center under low background winds but shifts downwind under high wind conditions. The magnitude of downwind precipitation enhancement is highly dependent on wind directions and is positively correlated with the city size for the south, southwest, and west directions. This study presents observational evidence through a cross‐city analysis that the urban precipitation pattern can be influenced by the urban modification of atmospheric processes, providing insight into the mechanistic link between future urban land‐use change and hydroclimates.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2025
  2. Zhang, Jiahua (Ed.)

    Microplastics are globally ubiquitous in marine environments, and their concentration is expected to continue rising at significant rates as a result of human activity. They present a major ecological problem with well-documented environmental harm. Sea spray from bubble bursting can transport salt and biological material from the ocean into the atmosphere, and there is a need to quantify the amount of microplastic that can be emitted from the ocean by this mechanism. We present a mechanistic study of bursting bubbles transporting microplastics. We demonstrate and quantify that jet drops are efficient at emitting microplastics up to 280μm in diameter and are thus expected to dominate the emitted mass of microplastic. The results are integrated to provide a global microplastic emission model which depends on bubble scavenging and bursting physics; local wind and sea state; and oceanic microplastic concentration. We test multiple possible microplastic concentration maps to find annual emissions ranging from 0.02 to 7.4—with a best guess of 0.1—mega metric tons per year and demonstrate that while we significantly reduce the uncertainty associated with the bursting physics, the limited knowledge and measurements on the mass concentration and size distribution of microplastic at the ocean surface leaves large uncertainties on the amount of microplastic ejected.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 29, 2024
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2024
  4. Evans, Robin J. ; Shpitser, Ilya (Ed.)
    Crowdsourcing is an effective and efficient paradigm for obtaining labels for unlabeled corpus employing crowd workers. This work considers the budget allocation problem for a generalized setting on a graph of instances to be labeled where edges encode instance dependencies. Specifically, given a graph and a labeling budget, we propose an optimal policy to allocate the budget among the instances to maximize the overall labeling accuracy. We formulate the problem as a Bayesian Markov Decision Process (MDP), where we define our task as an optimization problem that maximizes the overall label accuracy under budget constraints. Then, we propose a novel stage-wise reward function that considers the effect of worker labels on the whole graph at each timestamp. This reward function is utilized to find an optimal policy for the optimization problem. Theoretically, we show that our proposed policies are consistent when the budget is infinite. We conduct extensive experiments on five real-world graph datasets and demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed policies to achieve a higher label accuracy under budget constraints. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 31, 2024
  5. Abstract

    Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a long-lasting broad-spectrum plant defense mechanism induced in distal systemic tissues by mobile signals generated at the primary infection site. Despite the discoveries of multiple potential mobile signals, how these signals cooperate to trigger downstream SAR signaling is unknown. Here, we show that endogenous extracellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) [eNAD(P)] accumulates systemically upon pathogen infection and that both eNAD(P) and the lectin receptor kinase (LecRK), LecRK-VI.2, are required in systemic tissues for the establishment of SAR. Moreover, putative mobile signals, e.g., N-hydroxypipecolic acid (NHP), trigger de novo systemic eNAD(P) accumulation largely through the respiratory burst oxidase homolog RBOHF-produced reactive oxygen species (ROS). Importantly, NHP-induced systemic immunity mainly depends on ROS, eNAD(P), LecRK-VI.2, and BAK1, indicating that NHP induces SAR primarily through the ROS-eNAD(P)-LecRK-VI.2/BAK1 signaling pathway. Our results suggest that mobile signals converge on eNAD(P) in systemic tissues to trigger SAR through LecRK-VI.2.

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  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 27, 2024
  8. Abstract

    Coastal marine heatwaves (MHWs) modulate coastal climate through ocean‐land‐atmosphere interactions, but little is known about how coastal MHWs interact with coastal cities and modify urban thermal environment. In this study, a representative urban coastal environment under MHWs is simplified to a mixed convection problem. Fourteen large‐eddy simulations (LESs) are conducted to investigate how coastal cities interact with MHWs. We consider the simulations by simple urban roughness setup (Set A) as well as explicit urban roughness representation (Set B). Besides, different MHW intensities, synoptic wind speeds, surface fluxes of urban and sea patches are considered. Results suggest that increasing MHW intensity alters streamwise potential temperature gradient and vertical velocity direction. The magnitude of vertical velocity and urban heat island (UHI) intensity decrease with increasing synoptic wind speed. Changing urban or sea surface heat flux also leads to important differences in flow and temperature fields. Comparison between Set A and B reveals a significant increase of vertical velocity magnitude and UHI intensity. To further understand this phenomenon, a canopy layer UHI model is proposed to show the relationship between UHI intensity and urban canopy, thermal heterogeneity and mean advection. The effect of urban canopy is considered in terms of an additional vertical velocity scale that facilitates heat transport from the heated surface and therefore increases UHI intensity. The model can well explain the trend of the simulated results and implies that overlooking the effect of urban canopy underestimates canopy UHI in urban coastal environment.

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  9. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 4, 2024