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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2023
  2. Axon regrowth after spinal cord injury (SCI) is inhibited by several types of inhibitory extracellular molecules in the central nervous system (CNS), including chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), which also are components of perineuronal nets (PNNs). The axons of lampreys regenerate following SCI, even though their spinal cords contain CSPGs, and their neurons are enwrapped by PNNs. Previously, we showed that by 2 weeks after spinal cord transection in the lamprey, expression of CSPGs increased in the lesion site, and thereafter, decreased to pre-injury levels by 10 weeks. Enzymatic digestion of CSPGs in the lesion site with chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) enhanced axonal regeneration after SCI and reduced retrograde neuronal death. Lecticans (aggrecan, versican, neurocan, and brevican) are the major CSPG family in the CNS. Previously, we cloned a cDNA fragment that lies in the most conserved link-domain of the lamprey lecticans and found that lectican mRNAs are expressed widely in lamprey glia and neurons. Because of the lack of strict one-to-one orthology with the jawed vertebrate lecticans, the four lamprey lecticans were named simply A, B, C, and D. Using probes that distinguish these four lecticans, we now show that they all are expressed in glia and neurons but at differentmore »levels. Expression levels are relatively high in embryonic and early larval stages, gradually decrease, and are upregulated again in adults. Reductions of lecticans B and D are greater than those of A and C. Levels of mRNAs for lecticans B and D increased dramatically after SCI. Lectican D remained upregulated for at least 10 weeks. Multiple cells, including glia, neurons, ependymal cells and microglia/macrophages, expressed lectican mRNAs in the peripheral zone and lesion center after SCI. Thus, as in mammals, lamprey lecticans may be involved in axon guidance and neuroplasticity early in development. Moreover, neurons, glia, ependymal cells, and microglia/macrophages, are responsible for the increase in CSPGs during the formation of the glial scar after SCI.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 27, 2023
  3. Sugar translocation between cells and between subcellular compartments in plants requires either plasmodesmata or a diverse array of sugar transporters. Interactions between plants and associated microorganisms also depend on sugar transporters. The sugars will eventually be exported transporter (SWEET) family is made up of conserved and essential transporters involved in many critical biological processes. The functional significance and small size of these proteins have motivated crystallographers to successfully capture several structures of SWEETs and their bacterial homologs in different conformations. These studies together with molecular dynamics simulations have provided unprecedented insights into sugar transport mechanisms in general and into substrate recognition of glucose and sucrose in particular. This review summarizes our current understanding of the SWEET family, from the atomic to the whole-plant level. We cover methods used for their characterization, theories about their evolutionary origins, biochemical properties, physiological functions, and regulation. We also include perspectives on the future work needed to translate basic research into higher crop yields.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 20, 2023
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 15, 2023
  5. Silicon carbide has recently emerged as a promising photonics material due to its unique properties, including possessing strong second- and third-order nonlinear coefficients and hosting various color centers that can be utilized for a wealth of quantum applications. Here, we report the design and demonstration of octave-spanning microcombs in a 4H-silicon-carbide-on-insulator platform for the first time, to our knowledge. Such broadband operation is enabled by optimized nanofabrication achieving>1million intrinsic quality factors in a 36-μm-radius microring resonator, and careful dispersion engineering by investigating the dispersion properties of different mode families. For example, for the fundamental transverse-electric mode whose dispersion can be tailored by simply varying the microring waveguide width, we realized a microcomb spectrum covering the wavelength range from 1100 nm to 2400 nm with an on-chip power near 120 mW. While the observed comb state is verified to be chaotic and not soliton, attaining such a large bandwidth is a crucial step towards realizingf2fself-referencing. In addition, we also observed a coherent soliton-crystal state for the fundamental transverse-magnetic mode, which exhibits stronger dispersion than the fundamental transverse-electric mode and hence a narrower bandwidth.

  6. Abstract Empirically generated indices are used to evaluate the skill of a global climate model in representing the monsoon intraseasonal oscillation (MISO). This work adapts the method of Suhas et al., an extended empirical orthogonal function (EEOF) analysis of daily rainfall data with the first orthogonal function indicating MISO strength and phase. This method is applied to observed rainfall and Community Earth System Model (CESM1.2) simulation results. Variants of the CESM1.2 including upper ocean parameterizations for Langmuir turbulence and submesoscale mixed layer eddy restratification are used together with the EEOF analysis to explore sensitivity of the MISO to global upper ocean process representations. The skill with which the model variants recreate the MISO strength and persistence is evaluated versus the observed MISO. While all model versions reproduce the northward rainfall propagation traditionally associated with the MISO, a version including both Langmuir turbulence and submesoscale restratification parameterizations provides the most accurate simulations of the time scale of MISO events.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 15, 2023
  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023