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  1. Abstract

    We statistically evaluate the global distribution and energy spectrum of electron precipitation at low‐Earth‐orbit, using unprecedented pitch‐angle and energy resolved data from the Electron Losses and Fields INvestigation CubeSats. Our statistical results indicate that during active conditions, the ∼63 keV electron precipitation ratio peaks atL > 6 at midnight, whereas the spatial distribution of precipitating energy flux peaks between the dawn and noon sectors. ∼1 MeV electron precipitation ratio peaks near midnight atL > ∼6 but is enhanced near dusk during active times. The energy spectrum of the precipitation ratio shows reversal points indicating energy dispersion as a function ofLshell in both the slot region and atL > ∼6, consistent with hiss‐driven precipitation and current sheet scattering, respectively. Our findings provide accurate quantification of electron precipitation at various energies in a broad region of the Earth's magnetosphere, which is critical for magnetosphere‐ionosphere coupling.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 28, 2025
  2. For many years now, modern software is known to be developed in multiple languages (hence termed asmultilingualormulti-languagesoftware). Yet, to date, we still only have very limited knowledge about how multilingual software systems are constructed. For instance, it is not yet really clear how different languages are used, selected together, and why they have been so in multilingual software development. Given the fact that using multiple languages in a single software project has become a norm, understanding language use and selection (i.e.,language profile) as a basic element of themultilingual constructionin contemporary software engineering is an essential first step.

    In this article, we set out to fill this gap with a large-scale characterization study on language use and selection in open-source multilingual software. We start with presentingan updated overviewof language use in 7,113 GitHub projects spanning the 5 past years by characterizing overall statistics of language profiles, followed bya deeper lookinto the functionality relevance/justification of language selection in these projects through association rule mining. We proceed with an evolutionary characterization of 1,000 GitHub projects for each of the 10 past years to providea longitudinal viewof how language use and selection have changed over the years, as well as how the association between functionality and language selection has been evolving.

    Among many other findings, our study revealed a growing trend of using three to five languages in one multilingual software project and the noticeable stableness of top language selections. We found a non-trivial association between language selection and certain functionality domains, which was less stable than that with individual languages over time. In a historical context, we also have observed major shifts in these characteristics of multilingual systems both in contrast to earlier peer studies and along the evolutionary timeline. Our findings offer essential knowledge on the multilingual construction in modern software development. Based on our results, we also provide insights and actionable suggestions for both researchers and developers of multilingual systems.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 31, 2025
  3. In this study, we present simultaneous multi-point observations of magnetospheric oscillations on a time scale of tens of minutes (forced-breathing mode) and modulated whistler-mode chorus waves, associated with concurrent energetic electron precipitation observed through enhanced BARREL X-rays. Similar fluctuations are observed in X-ray signatures and the compressional component of magnetic oscillations, spanning from ∼9 to 12 h in MLT and 5 to 11 inLshell. Such magnetospheric oscillations covering an extensive region in the pre-noon sector have been suggested to play a potential role in precipitating energetic electrons by either wave scattering or loss cone modulation, showing a high correlation with the enhancement in X-rays. In this event, the correlation coefficients between chorus waves (smoothed over 8 min), ambient magnetic field oscillations and X-rays are high. We perform an in-depth quasi-linear modeling analysis to evaluate the role of magnetic field oscillations in modulating energetic electron precipitation in the Earth’s magnetosphere through modulating whistler-mode chorus wave amplitude, resonance condition between chorus waves and electrons, as well as loss cone size. Model results further show that the modulation of chorus wave amplitude plays a dominant role in modulating the electron precipitation. However, the effect of the modulation in the resonant energy between chorus waves and energetic electrons due to the background magnetic field oscillations cannot be neglected. The bounce loss cone modulation, affected by the magnetic oscillations, has little influence on the electron precipitation modulation. Our results show that the low frequency magnetospheric oscillations could play a significant role in modulating the electron precipitation through modulating chorus wave intensity and the resonant energy between chorus waves and electron.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 22, 2025
  4. Electrode-based electrical stimulation underpins several clinical bioelectronic devices, including deep-brain stimulators and cardiac pacemakers. However, leadless multisite stimulation is constrained by the technical difficulties and spatial-access limitations of electrode arrays. Optogenetics offers optically controlled random access with high spatiotemporal capabilities, but clinical translation poses challenges. Here we show tunable spatiotemporal photostimulation of cardiac systems using a non-genetic platform based on semiconductor-enabled biomodulation interfaces. Through spatiotemporal profiling of photoelectrochemical currents, we assess the magnitude, precision, accuracy and resolution of photostimulation in four leadless silicon-based monolithic photoelectrochemical devices. We demonstrate the optoelectronic capabilities of the devices through optical overdrive pacing of cultured cardiomyocytes (CMs) targeting several regions and spatial extents, isolated rat hearts in a Langendorff apparatus, in vivo rat hearts in an ischaemia model and an in vivo mouse heart model with transthoracic optical pacing. We also perform the first, to our knowledge, optical override pacing and multisite pacing of a pig heart in vivo. Our systems are readily adaptable for minimally invasive clinical procedures using our custom endoscopic delivery device, with which we demonstrate closed-thoracic operations and endoscopic optical stimulation. Our results indicate the clinical potential of the leadless, lightweight and multisite photostimulation platform as a pacemaker in cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), in which lead-placement complications are common. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 28, 2025
  5. Resonant interactions with whistler-mode waves are a crucial mechanism that drives the precipitation of energetic electrons. Using test particle simulations, we investigated the impact of nonlinear interactions of whistler-mode waves on electron precipitation across a broad energy range (10 keV- 1 MeV). Specifically, we focused on the combined effects of conventional phase bunching and anomalous scattering, which includes anomalous trapping and positive bunching. It is shown that anomalous scattering transports electrons away from the loss cone and the only process directly causing precipitation in the nonlinear regime is the phase bunching. We further show that their combined effects result in a precipitation-to-trapped flux ratio lower than the quasilinear expectations in a quasi-equilibrium state. Additionally, we calculated the diffusion and advection coefficients associated with the nonlinear trapping and bunching processes, which are vital for understanding the underlying mechanisms of the precipitation. Based on these coefficients, we characterized the phase bunching boundary, representing the innermost pitch angle boundary where phase bunching can occur. A further analysis revealed that electrons just outside this boundary, rather than near the loss cone, are directly precipitated, while electrons within the boundary are prevented from precipitation due to anomalous scattering. Moreover, we demonstrated that the regime of dominant nonlinear precipitation is determined by the combination of the phase bunching boundary and the inhomogeneity ratio. This comprehensive analysis provides insights into the nonlinear effects of whistler-mode waves on electron precipitation, which are essential for understanding physical processes related to precipitation, such as microbursts, characterized by intense and bursty electron precipitation.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 22, 2024
  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 15, 2024
  7. Colloid-based materials with tunable biophysical and chemical properties have demonstrated significant potential in a wide range of biomedical applications. The ability to manipulate these properties across various size scales, encompassing nano-, micro-, and macrodomains, is essential to enhancing current biomedical technologies and facilitating the development of novel applications. Focusing on material design, we explore various synthetic colloid-based materials at the nano- and microscales and investigate their correlation with biological systems. Furthermore, we examine the utilization of the self-assembly of colloids to construct monolithic and macroscopic materials suitable for biointerfaces. By probing the potential of spatial imaging and localized drug delivery, enhanced functionality, and colloidal manipulation, we highlight emerging opportunities that could significantly advance the field of colloid-based materials in biomedical applications. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 3, 2024
  8. Blikstein, P. ; Van Aalst, J. ; Kizito, R. ; Brennan, K. (Ed.)
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 10, 2024
  9. Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves can scatter radiation belt electrons with energies of a few hundred keV and higher. To accurately predict this scattering and the resulting precipitation of these relativistic electrons on short time scales, we need detailed knowledge of the wave field’s spatio-temporal evolution, which cannot be obtained from single spacecraft measurements. Our study presents EMIC wave models obtained from two-dimensional (2D) finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations in the Earth’s dipole magnetic field. We study cases of hydrogen band and helium band wave propagation, rising-tone emissions, packets with amplitude modulations, and ducted waves. We analyze the wave propagation properties in the time domain, enabling comparison within situobservations. We show that cold plasma density gradients can keep the wave vector quasiparallel, guide the wave energy efficiently, and have a profound effect on mode conversion and reflections. The wave normal angle of unducted waves increases rapidly with latitude, resulting in reflection on the ion hybrid frequency, which prohibits propagation to low altitudes. The modeled wave fields can serve as an input for test-particle analysis of scattering and precipitation of relativistic electrons and energetic ions.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 10, 2024
  10. Empirical models have been previously developed using the large dataset of satellite observations to obtain the global distributions of total electron density and whistler-mode wave power, which are important in modeling radiation belt dynamics. In this paper, we apply the empirical models to construct the total electron density and the wave amplitudes of chorus and hiss, and compare them with the observations along Van Allen Probes orbits to evaluate the model performance. The empirical models are constructed using the Hp30 and SME (or SML) indices. The total electron density model provides an overall high correlation coefficient with observations, while large deviations are found in the dynamic regions near the plasmapause or in the plumes. The chorus wave model generally agrees with observations when the plasma trough region is correctly modeled and for modest wave amplitudes of 10–100 pT. The model overestimates the wave amplitude when the chorus is not observed or weak, and underestimates the wave amplitude when a large-amplitude chorus is observed. Similarly, the hiss wave model has good performance inside the plasmasphere when modest wave amplitudes are observed. However, when the modeled plasmapause location does not agree with the observation, the model misidentifies the chorus and hiss waves compared to observations, and large modeling errors occur. In addition, strong (>200 pT) hiss waves are observed in the plumes, which are difficult to capture using the empirical model due to their transient nature and relatively poor sampling statistics. We also evaluate four metrics for different empirical models parameterized by different indices. Among the tested models, the empirical model considering a plasmapause and controlled by Hp* (the maximum Hp30 during the previous 24 h) and SME* (the maximum SME during the previous 3 h) or Hp* and SML has the best performance with low errors and high correlation coefficients. Our study indicates that the empirical models are applicable for predicting density and whistler-mode waves with modest power, but large errors could occur, especially near the highly-dynamic plasmapause or in the plumes.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 11, 2024